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1784 Homann & Gussefeld Large Antique Map of the Newly Independent United States of America

1784 Homann & Gussefeld Large Antique Map of the Newly Independent United States of America

  • TitleCharte uber die XIII vereinigte Staaten von Nord-Amerika...F L Guffefeld...A 1784 
  • Ref #:  82031
  • Size: 25in x 21in (635mm x 535mm)
  • Date : 1784
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition

Description: 
This large important & scarce fine beautifully hand coloured original antique map of the United States just after the War of Independence by Franz Ludwig Gussefeld (1744 – 1807) in 1784 - dated - was published by the famous German cartography firm of The Homann Heirs.
Also known as the Stetson map, after the Stetson engraved in the title cartouche, this is one of the earliest maps to recognised the newly independent United States after the revolutionary war of Independence.

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - off white
Age of map color: - Original
Colors used: - Yellow, green, blue, pink
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: -  25in x 21in (635mm x 535mm)
Plate size: - 23 1/2in x 18 1/4in (595mm x 465mm)
Margins: - Min 1in (25mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - None
Verso: - None

Background: An early and large map of the newly formed United States  delineating all 13 states. The map extends west past the Mississippi River and north to the southern tip of Hudson Bay. The southern states are shown with their western boundaries on the Mississippi River, although the coloring shows only regions east of the Appalachians as being organized. As with many German maps of the period, there are some incorrect state boundaries; Vermont is shown as part of New Hampshire, and Maryland includes much of northern Virginia. A list of the principal German communities in New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania are listed. The interior regions are shown with considerable topographical detail, locating numerous Indian tribes, topography, and watershed. The garland-style title cartouche is topped with a hat and crossed swords. 
Each state is colored in a contrasting pastel and the states in the northern part are named by way of a lettered key given just below the attractive title cartouche. The treatment of the lands to the west of the Appalachian Mountains and up to the Mississippi River is quite interesting. This area is indicated as lands that came to the United States by the Treaty of 1783.French title outside top neat-line: Les XIII Etats Unis de l' Amerique Septentrionale. 

Franz Ludwig Gussefeld (1744 –1807) was a German cartographer noted for his highly accurate & detailed maps, most of which were published by Homannsche Erben (Homann Heirs) firm in Nuremberg, Germany in the 18th century.
Gussefeld was born in Osterberg and at an early age had an interest in drawing and creating maps. His first map of the German state of Brandenburg was published in 1773 and was the first of over a 100 of his maps published by the Homann firm. The high quality of Gussefeld's work is credited with saving the Homann Heirs firm, a famous publishing house that had come under financial difficulties after the death of the founder JB Homann.
Gussefeld died of pulmonary edema in Weimar in 1807. (Ref: Tooley; M&B)

$2,250.00 USD
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1746 J B D Anville Large Antique Map of North America

1746 J B D Anville Large Antique Map of North America

  • Title : Amerique Septentrionale Publiee sous les Auspices de Monseigneur le Duc d 'Orleans.. Par Le Snr. D Anville MDCCXLVI
  • Date : 1746
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition
  • Ref:  93207
  • Size: 42 1/2in x 37in (1.08m x 940mm)

Description:
This spectacular large original copper plate engraved antique map of North America by Jean-Baptiste Bourguinon D Anville was in 1746 - dated - and was published in his elphant folio Atlas Generale.

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: - Original & later
Colors used: - Blue, pink, red, green, yellow
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 42 1/2in x 37in (1.08m x 940mm)
Plate size: - 34 1/2in x 33 1/2in (875m x 850mm)
Margins: - Min 2in (50mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Light spotting in margins
Plate area: - Folds as issued
Verso: - Folds as issued

Background: 
To illustrate the cartography of the mid eighteenth century, especially American cartography, a D Anville map is essential. He dominated not only the French but all contemporary European cartography. He was foremost to leave blank spaces in his maps where knowledge was insufficient. His representation of the great lakes is superior to that of his contemporary John Mitchell who was responsible for publishing one of the most famous mid 18th century maps A Map of the British and French Dominions in North America on 8 sheets London in 1755. It was the standard map of North America up until the end of the century.
Eusebio Francisco Kinos discoveries of California in the beginning of the 18th century have now made full impact. D Anvilles map shows California as a peninsula and the Colorado and Gila Rivers are more accurately located. Note that the western part of the Gila River is named the Rio Grande, the Santa Cruz River is called Sta. Maria, and the San Pedro River is Terenate. (Ref: Tooley, Printed maps of America, 104; The Mapping of America 316)

$1,750.00 USD
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1787 Samuel Dunn Large Antique Double Hemisphere World Map w/ Scientific anno.

1787 Samuel Dunn Large Antique Double Hemisphere World Map w/ Scientific anno.

  • Title : A General Map of the World, or Terraqueous Globe with all the New Discoveries and Marginal Delineations, Containing the Most Interesting Particulars in the Solar, Starry and Mundane System...1787
  • Date : 1787 
  • Condition: (A) Very Good Condition
  • Ref:  80778
  • Size: 49 1/2in x 41in (1.25m x 1.020mm)

Description:
This monumental very large original copper-plate engraved antique double hemisphere world map, with scientific annotations, by Thomas Dunn, with cartographic material based on information by J. B. B. D Anville, was engraved by Thomas Kitchin in 1787 - dated - and published by Robert Sayer as plate nos. 1-2 in the 1790 edition of General Atlas.

Samuel Dunns General Map of the World, or Terraqueous Globe, is a general world map with all the new discoveries and marginal delineations, containing interesting information relating to the solar, starry and mundane systems, star charts, a map of the Moon, the Solar System, and numerous other features. Dunns large map has an insurmountable amount of general & scientific detail.
This map is one of the most popular and recognizable large maps of the world from the period, having been the map of choice for a number of atlases published by Jefferys, Sayer and Bennett & Laurie and Whittle over a 30 year period. The map was revised several times..

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: - Original & later
Colors used: - Blue, pink, red, green, yellow
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 49 1/2in x 41in (1.25m x 1.020mm)
Plate size: - 49 1/2in x 41in (1.25m x 1.020mm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (12mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Top margin cropped close to plate-mark
Plate area: - Bottom left Analemma globe restored and backed
Verso: - Some folds strengthened with archival tape

Background: 
The double hemisphere globes are surrounded on all sides by detailed scientific calculations and descriptions as well as Northern and Southern Hemisphere star charts, a map of the Moon, a latitude and longitude analemma chart, a map of the Solar System, a mercator projection of the world, an analemma projection, a seasonal chart, a universal scale chart, and numerous smaller diagrams depicting planets and mathematical systems. All text is in English. The survey of this map starts in North America, much of which was, even in 1794, largely unknown.
North America, this map follows shortly after the explorations of captain James Cook in the Arctic and Pacific Northwest, so the general outline of the continent is close to complete. However, when this map was made, few inland expeditions had extended westward in America, beyond the Mississippi. This map notes two separate speculative courses for the apocryphal river of the west, a northern route extending from lake Winnipeg and a southern route passing south of Winnipeg through Pike\'s lake. The River of the West was hopeful dream of French and English explorers who were searching for a water passage through North America to the Pacific. In concept, should such a route be found, it would have become an important trade artery allowing the British and French, whose colonies dominated the eastern parts of North America, to compete with the Spanish for control of the lucrative Asia-Pacific trade. These earlier speculative cartographers didn\'t realize that the bulk of the Rocky Mountains stood between them and their plans. The kingdom of Quivira, which is one of the lands associated with Spanish legends of the Seven Cities of Gold is located slightly south of the western rivers. In this area we can also find Drake\'s Harbor or Port de la Bodega and Albion. Drake\'s Harbor is where Sir Francis Drake supposedly landed during his circumnavigation of the globe in 1580. Drake wintered in this harbor and used the abundant resources of the region to repair his ships. He also claimed the lands for England dubbing them New Albion. Although the true location of Drake\'s port is unknown, most place it much further to the north. By situating it and consequently New Albion further to the south, Dunn is advocating a British rather than Spanish claim to this region. On the Eastern coast of North America we find a fledgling United States extending from Georgia to Maine. Dunn names Boston, New York, Charleston, Long Island, and Philadelphia, as well as the important smaller towns of Jamestown, Williamsburg and Edonton.

South America, exhibits a typically accurate coastline and limited knowledge of the interior beyond Peru and the populated coastlands. A few islands are noted off the coast, including the Galapagos, which are referred to as the Inchanted Islands. The Amazon is vague with many of its tributaries drawn in speculatively. Dunn and d\'Anville have done away with the popular representation of Manoa or El Dorado in Guyana, but a vestigial Lake Parima is evident. Further south, the Laguna de los Xarayes, another apocryphal destination, is drawn at the northernmost terminus of the Paraguay River. The Xaraiés, meaning Masters of the River were an indigenous people occupying what are today parts of Brazil\'s Matte Grosso and the Pantanal. When Spanish and Portuguese explorers first navigated up the Paraguay River, as always in search of El Dorado, they encountered the vast Pantanal flood plain at the height of its annual inundation. Understandably misinterpreting the flood plain as a gigantic inland sea, they named it after the local inhabitants, the Xaraies. The Laguna de los Xarayes almost immediately began to appear on early maps of the region and, at the same time, almost immediately took on a legendary aspect as the gateway to El Dorado.
Across the Atlantic in Africa we find the situation in South America mirrored - that is, the coasts are well defined by the interior is vague. The Nile River follows the Ptolemaic course with a presumed source in two lakes at the base of the \'Mountains of the Moon.\' Further east, the Niger River is well mapped but gets lost as it flows inland. There is no suggestion of its outlet into the Gulf of Guinea, which at the time had not been considered. In the southern part of Africa we fine an elongated lake without a northern border labeled Massi. This is probably an embryonic form of Lake Malawi. Also in this area, we encounter the Kingdom of Monomatapa and the mountain range called the \'Backbone of the World.\' This region of Africa held a particular fascination for Europeans since the Portuguese first encountered it in the 16th century. At the time, this area was a vast empire called Mutapa or Monomotapa that maintained an active trading network with faraway partners in India and Asia. As the Portuguese presence in the area increased in the 17th century, the Europeans began to note that Monomatapa was particularly rich in gold. They were also impressed with the numerous well crafted stone structures, including the mysterious nearby ruins of Great Zimbabwe. This combination led many Europeans to believe that King Solomon\'s Mines, a sort of African El Dorado, must be hidden in this region. Monomotapa did in fact have rich gold mines in the 16th and 17th centuries, but most of these had been exhausted by the 1700s.
Asia is exceptionally well mapped reflecting the most recent information available in Europe - especially regarding the explorations of Vitus Bering and Tschirikow in the Siberian Arctic. Notes Macau, Formosa (Tay-oan), numerous silk route cities, the straits of Sin Capura (Singapore), Beijing (Peking), Edo (Tokyo) and Bombay.
Australia appears in full as New Holland or Terra Australis. Names numerous points along the coast with associated notes regarding the activities of various explorers. Van Diemen\'s Land or Tasmania is curiously attached to the mainland - an error that many earlier maps had long ago corrected. Further east New Zealand is exceptionally well formed. Most of the region has been thoroughly mapped by Cook, though several of the cartographic errors perpetuated by Quiros are present. There is little trace of either Antarctica or the Great Southern continent, though Bouvet\'s Island does appear as \'Sandwich Land.\'
Throughout the map we can also find the routes of numerous important explorers including Middleton, Anson, Bougainville, Cook, the Resolution, the Spanish Galleon Carlos, Bouvet, and others. Often their landings and important discoveries are also noted.

Dunn, Samuel d. 1794
Samuel Dunn was a British mathematician and amateur astronomer.
He was a native of Crediton, Devonshire. His father died at Crediton in 1744. He wrote in his will:.....
In 1743, when the first great fire broke out and destroyed the west town, I had been some time keeping a school and teaching writing, accounts, navigation, and other mathematical science, although not above twenty years of age; then I moved to the schoolhouse at the foot of Bowdown [now Bowden] Hill, and taught there till Christmas 1751, when I came to London.....
The schoolhouse was the place where the English schoo\\\" was kept previously to its union with the blue school in 1821. In London, Dunn taught in different schools, and gave private lessons.
In 1757, he came before the public as the inventor of the universal planispheres, or terrestrial and celestial globes in plano, four large stereographical maps, with a transparent index placed over each map.....
whereby the circles of the sphere are instantaneously projected on the plane of the meridian for any latitude, and the problems of geography, astronomy, and navigation wrought with the same certainty and ease as by the globes themselves, without the help of scale and compasses, pen and ink.....
He published an account of their Description and Use, 2nd edition, octavo, London, 1759. From the preface, it appears that in 1758 Dunn had become master of an academy for boarding and qualifying young gentlemen in arts, sciences, and languages, and for business, at Chelsea. It was at Ormond House, where there was a good observatory.
On 1 January 1760, he made the observation of a remarkable comet; other discoveries he communicated to the Royal Society. Towards the close of 1763, he gave up the school at Chelsea, and fixing himself at Brompton Park, near Kensington, resumed once more his private teaching. In 1764 he made a short tour through France. In 1774, when residing at 6 Clements Inn, near Temple Bar, he published his excellent New Atlas of the Mundane System, or of Geography and Cosmography, describing the Heavens and the Earth. … The whole elegantly engraved on sixty-two copper plates. With a general introduction, folio, London. About this time his reputation led to his being appointed mathematical examiner of the candidates for the East India Company\\\'s service.
Under the companys auspices he was enabled to publish in a handsome form several of his more important works. Such were:
1. A New and General Introduction to Practical Astronomy, with its application to Geography … Topography, octavo, London, 1774.
2. The Navigators Guide to the Oriental or Indian Seas, or the Description and Use of a Variation Chart of the Magnetic Needle, designed for shewing the Longitude throughout the principal parts of the Atlantic, Ethiopic, and Southern Oceans, octavo, London (1775).
3. A New Epitome of Practical Navigation, or Guide to the Indian Seas, containing the Elements of Mathematical Learning, used … in the Theory and Practice of Nautical affairs; the Theory of Navigation. ..; the Method of Correcting and Determining the Longitude at Sea …; the Practice of Navigation in all kinds of Sailing (with copper plates), octavo, London, 1777, and
4. The Theory and Practice of the Longitude at Sea … with copper plates, octavo, London, 1778; second edition, enlarged, quarto, London, 1786.
He also methodised, corrected, and further enlarged a goodly quarto, entitled A New Directory for the East Indies … being a work originally begun upon the plan of the Oriental Neptune, augmented and improved by Mr. Willm. Herbert, Mr. Willm. Nichelson, and others, London, 1780, which reached a fifth edition the same year. Dunn was living at 8 Maiden Lane, Covent Garden, in July 1777, but by September 1780 had taken up his abode at 1 Boar\\\'s Head Court, Fleet Street, where he continued for the remainder of his life.
He died in January 1794. His will, dated 5 January 1794, was proved at London, on the 20 January by his kinsman, William Dunn, officer of excise of London (registered in P.C.C., 16, Holman). Therein he describes himself as teacher of the mathematics and master for the longitude at sea, and desires to be buried in the parish church belonging to the place where I shall happen to inhabit a little time before my decease. He names seven relations to whom he left £20 each; but to his wife, Elizabeth Dunn, who hath withdrawn herself from me near thirty years, the sum only of ten pounds. No children are mentioned.
He also requested the corporation of Crediton to provide always and have a master of the school at the foot of Bowden Hill residing therein, of the church of England, but not in holy orders, an able teacher of writing, navigation, the lunar method of taking the longitude at sea, planning, drawing, and surveying, with all mathematical science. For this purpose he left £30 a year. Six boys were to be taught, with a preference to his own descendants. The stock thus bequeathed produced in 1823 dividends amounting to £25 4/- per annum, the school being known by the name of Dunn\\\'s School.
Dunn contributed nine papers to the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, of which body, however, he was not a fellow. On the title-page of his Atlas he appears as a member of the Philosophical Society at Philadelphia, America. A few of his letters to Thomas Birch are preserved, and one to Emanuel Mendes da Costa

$7,500.00 USD
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1639 Henricus Hondius Antique 1st Edition Map of North America California Island

1639 Henricus Hondius Antique 1st Edition Map of North America California Island

Description:
This magnificent original copper-plate engraved antique rare 1st state map of North America, with California as an Island, by Henricus Hondius was published in the 1639 French edition.
There were only 3 publications of this map by Hondius in the 1630s & 40s with Jan Jansson replacing the map with his signature in 1641.

The now seldom seen first state of an important, early Dutch map of North America. It one of the first Dutch atlas maps to show California as an island, preceded only by the Hondius Hondius world map of 1633. A note on the map recounting the story of the origin of the California-as-an-island refers to a Dutch captain who obtained a map of California depicted as an island from a captured Spanish ship. The note even provides the dimensions of the island. The Hondius map was an important conduit for bringing the island myth into the cartographic mainstream. Further, Tooley noted the map was also first attempt in Holland to add lakes connected to the St. Lawrence. One of these lakes on the map is in the approximate shape and position of Lake Ontario.
This was also one of a very few, early Dutch maps specifically of North America (as opposed to the entire Western Hemisphere). Aside from the rare De Jode map of 1593, this is the only folio-sized map of North America produced during the entire Dutch Golden Age.

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Light and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: - Original
Colors used: - Blue, pink, red, green, yellow
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 23in x 20in (595mm x 510mm)
Plate size: - 22in x 19in (500mm x 470mm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (12mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Top margin expended from plate-mark
Plate area: - None
Verso: - None

Background: 
Henricus Hondius beautifully engraved map of North America had significant influence in perpetuating the theory of California as an island. This was of the influence of his powerful Dutch publishing house with no earlier maps representing California as an island maps having such a wide audience. The 1630s were a decade of constant development in the houses of Blaeu, Hondius & Jansson. It is interesting to note that Blaeu never produced a single sheet map of North America; producing a map of just the whole American continent, first produced in 1617. Also during this decade Joannes Janssonius became an active partner of Hondius, and although this map does not bear his mark, it is believe it was his creation, based on the very similar South American, at the same time, displaying his name.
Cartographically this map is a careful composition of many different sources. The depiction and nomenclature of the west, along with that of California, derive directly from the Henry Briggs The North Part of America, 1625. A legend placed strategically over the north-west coastline offers the opportunity to discontinue a coastline least understood. An unnamed lake still feeds a Rio del Norto flowing incorrectly south-west into what should be the headwaters of the Gulf of California. On the east bank of this river is Real de Nueua Mexico, or Santa Fe. The Gulf of Mexico and the Florida peninsula originate from the Hessel Gerritsz chart of c.1631.
The east coast, however, is harder to define; the south-east appears to be quite generic in form. It is the area north of here that does not appear to be from a particular source. The Chesapeake Bay area is defined in about as much detail as the scale and style of the map will allow, Iames Towne being clearly identified. NOVUM BELGIUM is unlike any other before it, the area between the Zuitt Reuier (Delaware River) and the Noort R (Hudson River) being greatly elongated on a north-east to south-west axis. New Amsterdam is curiously not designated although Fort Orange is present. For New England just a select few names have been chosen from John Smiths map of the area, 1616. The Gulf of St. Lawrence appears to follow de Laet more than Champlain. The latter is used to depict a single great Lake; however, its name, Lac des Iroquois, is borrowed from one nearby. Interestingly the author chose not use Champlains more recent 1632 map but the earlier 1612 Carte Geographique De La Nouvelle France; To avoid unknown territory he does not venture the river system further west, unlike Champlain. Along the Atlantic coast of Labrador we find for the first time much Dutch Nomenclature, reflecting their increased whaling activities in these waters. Hudson Bay is clearly derived from Briggs, 1625, except for the west coast where he introduces the cartography of Thomas James, 1633. The addition of a fox here could be seen as a veiled reference to Luke Foxe, whose own map of the previous year bears just such an animal.

$8,500.00 USD
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1798 Hayward Very Long View of New York City from Brooklyn, Pub. Valentine 1861

1798 Hayward Very Long View of New York City from Brooklyn, Pub. Valentine 1861

  • Title : A View of the City of New York from Brooklyn Heights, foot of Pierrepont St. in 1798 by Monsieur C. B. Julien, de St. Memin with a Pantograph invented by himself
  • Date : 1861
  • Condition: (A) Very Good Condition
  • Ref:  93131
  • Size: 55in x 7in (1.40m x 180mm)

Description:
This long (55in) original antique rare lithograph print, a view of New York City, from Brooklyn Heights, in 1798 by George Hayward was published in the 1861 edition of D T Valentines Manual of the Corporation of the City of New York or Valentines Manual.

A rare highly detailed and almost photograph like view of New York City, with names of houses and significant places recorded is one of the earliest real life views available as it was at the end of the 18th century. Included in the view is Trinity Church, Wall St., St. Paul\'s Church, the New York Hospital and many other early building of NYC.

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Light and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: -
Colors used: -
General color appearance: -
Paper size: - 55in x 7in (1.40m x 180mm)
Plate size: - 55in x 7in (1.40m x 180mm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (12mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Light chipping along edges
Plate area: - Folds as issued, light creasing, repair to first left fold
Verso: - Folds as issued, light creasing, repair to first left fold

Background: 
Manual of the Corporation of the City of New York or Valentines Manuals, published annually for nearly 30 years, contained hundreds of rare beautifully hand coloured contemporary and historical lithograph maps and views of New York City.

Valentine, David Thomas 1801 - 1869 
As the Clerk of the Common Council of New York City, Valentine edited and published a series of books on the history and contemporary facts of New York City entitled Manual of the Corporation Of The City of New York. They became know as Valentines Manuals with updates published annually, between 1841 & 1870. Valentine used his manuals to produce some of the rarest and most important maps & views of the city of New York, some of which occasionally appear on the market. His contribution to the historical record of New York city cannot be over stated.

$750.00 USD
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1748 (1770) Nicolas Bellin Large Antique World Map on Mercators Proj. Capt. Cook

1748 (1770) Nicolas Bellin Large Antique World Map on Mercators Proj. Capt. Cook

  • Title : Essay d' une Carte Reduite Contenant les parties connuees Du Globe Terrestre...1748 (1770)
  • Date : 1744 (1770)
  • Condition: (A) Very Good Condition
  • Ref:  93114 
  • Size: 28in x 21 1/2in (710mm x 550mm)

Description:
This very large beautifully hand coloured original antique World Map on Mercators Projection was engraved in 1748 by Nicolas Bellin, dated in the title, with updates to 1770 with the discoveries by various explorers including Captain James Cook in Australia & New Zealand in 1769-1770.

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: - Original
Colors used: - Blue, pink, red, green, yellow
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 28in x 21 1/2in (710mm x 550mm)
Plate size: - 28 1/2n x 20 1/2in (725mm x 520mm)
Margins: - Min 1/4in (10mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Left margin extended from border
Plate area: - Folds as issued
Verso: - Three folds re-enforced on verso

Background: 
The map presents the entire world on Mercator Projection based on a Paris (L’Isle de Fer) meridian, exhibiting post-Cook geography throughout, but most specifically in the Pacific and along the northwest coast of America.
North America to the west of the Mississippi is vaguely rendered according to 16th century expeditions into the region by Coronado, La Salle, De Soto, and others.
Bellin identifies the semi-mythical civilizations of Quivira and Teguayo, both associated with legends of the Seven Cities of Gold, in what is modern day Utah, California, and Nevada. Along the western coast the strait discovered by Martin Aguilar is noted. Further north still the River of the West (Fl. de l’Ouest) extends from the west coast to the Lake of the Woods (Lac de Bois) and thence via additional waterways to the Great Lakes and the Atlantic. The River of the West appeared in many 18th century maps of the Americas and is reflective of French hopes for a water route from their colonies in Canada and Louisiana to the Pacific. Still further north the coastline becomes extremely vague, in places vanishing altogether. The Aleutians are vaguely rendered according to various sightings by Vitus Jonassen Bering and Aleksei Chirikov in the 1740s and identified as the “Archipel de Nord”.
In the Pacific, various Polynesian Island groups are noted though many are slightly or significantly misplaced. The Solomon Islands are vastly oversized referencing the early 17th claims of Quiros. The other lands discovered and erroneously mapped by Quiros in 1606 and Davis in 1686 during their search of the great southern continent are also noted. Hawaii, as yet undiscovered, is absent. New Zealand is rendered twice though is accurate in its form and position. Australia, here labeled “Nouvelle Holland”, has part of its southern coastline ghosted in and Van Diemen’s Land (Tasmania) is attached to the mainland. The southern coast of New Guinea is similarly ghosted in, suggesting its unexplored state.
It is of interest that there is a common misconception regarding this map that suggests the first edition was dated 1748. There are editions with a printed date of 1748, but these are actually later editions. The 1748 date is a printing error in which “8” and “4” are transposed, the actual date of publication being 1784. The first edition of this map is the 1778 example shown here. (Ref: Tooley; M&B)

$1,350.00 USD
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1744 Nicolas Bellin Large Important Antique Map of North America, Charlevoix

1744 Nicolas Bellin Large Important Antique Map of North America, Charlevoix

  • Title : Carte De La Louisiane Cours Du Mississipi et Pais Voisions Dediee a M la Comte de Maurepas...Par N Bellin Ingenieur de la Marine, 1744
  • Date : 1744
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition
  • Ref:  93108
  • Size: 29in x 20in (735mm x 515mm) 

Description:
This large original hand coloured copper-plate engraved antique map of North America by Nicolas Bellin, in 1744 - dated - was engraved by Guillaume Dheulland (1700-1770) & published in Pierre Francois Xavier Charlevoix book on Canada & North America Histoire et Description Generale de la Nouvelle France avec Le Journal Historique d\'un Voyage fait par Ordre du Roi dans L\'Amérique Septentrionnale

Extremely important, large and much overlooked map of North America, extending from New England, The Great Lakes to Florida and west to the Rio Grande River, New Mexico, east to Santa Fe, Taos, and the known regions of the Missouri Valley. Charlevoix map provides a remarkable overview of the regions of the future United, in the first half of the 18th Century.
The map tracks to the sources of the Mississippi River and depicts 4 of the 5 Great providing the most up to date information on the Mississippi River Basin, Ohio River and the major river systems between the Mississippi River and the Appalachians.
The map is one of Bellins earliest of North America and was published map the regions described in Charlevoix Histoire et description générale de la Nouvelle France and was also compiled in part from the Chaussegros de Lery manuscripts. The map is noteworthy for the mountain range in Michigan that did not exist, with detailed text on American Indian locations and lands and notes on French forts and other early settlements and towns.
In 1720 the Duke of Orleans sent the Jesuit scholar and explorer Pierre François-Xavier de Charlevoix to America to record events in New France and Louisiana and determine the best route to the Pacific Ocean. Charlevoix gathered geographic information from fur traders in Quebec and travelled through the Great Lakes and down the Mississippi River. After he returned to France, Charlevoix published his views on North America, which has become one of the most important works on North America prior to the French & Indian, 7 years, war.
It is recorded that Thomas Jefferson owned a copy of Charlevoix book and recommended it, along with the accounts of Hennepin and Lahontan, as a particularly useful for detail in the largely unexplored regions of North America. He referred to Charlevoix book & Bellins map as he developed his own ideas of Louisiana and the Northwest.

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: -
Colors used: -
General color appearance: -
Paper size: - 29in x 20in (735mm x 515mm)
Plate size: - 23in x 16 1/2in (590mm x 420mm)
Margins: - Min 1in (25mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Light soiling
Plate area: - None
Verso: - Light soiling

Background: 
Pierre-François-Xavier de Charlevoix 1682 - 1761 was a French Jesuit priest who wrote one of the earliest descriptive accounts of North America.
Sent from France on a scientific and exploratory mission to Canada, where he had previously stayed, he traveled up the St. Lawrence River in 1720, passed through the Great Lakes, made the portage to the Mississippi River, survived shipwreck in the Gulf of Mexico, and visited the island of Santo Domingo. Returning home, he wrote Histoire de Saint-Domingue and Histoire et description générale de la Nouvelle-France the latter of much historical value.

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1757 Nicolas Bellin Antique Map of the Great lakes of North America

1757 Nicolas Bellin Antique Map of the Great lakes of North America

Description:
This original copper-plate engraved antique map of The Great Lakes of North America by Jacques Nicolas Bellin, in 1757 was published in Antoine François Prevosts 15 volumes of Histoire Generale des Voyages written by Prevost & other authors between 1746-1790. 

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: -
Colors used: -
General color appearance: -
Paper size: - 14 1/2in x 10in (360mm x 255mm)
Plate size: - 12in x 8in (305mm x 205mm)
Margins: - Min 1in (25mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - Folds as issued
Verso: - None

Background: 
The mapping of the Great Lakes region began in the early seventeenth century, when the first indications of the lakes appeared on maps made by European cartographers. By the mid-1600s, the maps of French Royal Geographer Nicolas Sanson had recognizable depictions of all five Great Lakes. His map is imprecise—Lake Superior lacks its distinctive shape and is unbounded on the west—but Lakes Ontario, Erie, Huron and Michigan can be discerned without difficulty. The lack of any reference to the Mississippi River in Sansons map reflects how little cartographers really knew about the region at the time.
Until the late eighteenth century, maps were made with information acquired in an irregular and imprecise manner. They were not based on formal surveys, but on written records supplemented with sketches by explorers, missionaries and trappers traveling the Upper Midwest. European cartographers had the task of fitting together this often contradictory information and putting the results into the framework of a geographic map. Instead of being mapped in terms of latitude and longitude, prominent places were usually located in relation to other places, which were, of course, similarly positioned. Distances could not be measured with any accuracy at this time, so these maps were liable to gross errors.
The early maps in the Making Maps, Mapping History exhibit provide a capsulized view of the growth of geographical knowledge of the Great Lakes region. As noted above, Sansons map was the first to display all five of the Great Lakes. Vincenzo Maria Coronelli, the cosmographer of the Republic of Venice, used information supplied by Jesuit missionaries in a 1688 map that was the first accurate depiction of the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River. French cartographer Guillaume De LIsle further refined the image and provided an outline that was not substantially improved until surveyors entered the region in the nineteenth century.
The first official government surveys of the Great Lakes were hydrographic surveys conducted by the British Admiralty under the direction of Capt. Henry W. Bayfield. Bayfield spent his entire career surveying the St. Lawrence River and the Great Lakes, beginning with Lake Superior in 1816. The lake-shore city of Bayfield, Wis., was named in honor of this pioneer surveyor.
One of the first acts of the new government of the United States was to establish a system for the orderly settlement of its western lands. Under the Ordinance of 1785, land surveyors went into the western territories in advance of settlement to divide the land into townships of 36 square- mile sections. Though mapping was not the governments primary aim, the surveys provided ample grist for the mapmakers mill, and the regions were, for the first time, mapped with considerable accuracy. The federal government, however, was not yet in the business of making maps for the public. That was left to enterprising individuals, such as Samuel Morrison, Elisha Dwelle and Joshua Hathaway, who produced one of the first topographical maps of the Wisconsin Territory in 1837.
The surveys of the General Land Office served as the basis for the mapping of much of the Great Lakes region from around 1800, when the surveys began, until about 1890, when the U.S. Geological Survey began to map the region again. In some cases, however, the old surveys were not entirely superseded until the mid-20th century. The distinctive feature of maps based on these surveys is the invariable presence of the township grid.

As population and commerce in the Great Lakes region grew, the federal government assumed responsibility for charting the lakes for navigation. The U.S. Lake Survey began in 1841 with an appropriation of $15,000. Before the Civil War, the work was conducted by officers of the Corps of Topographical Engineers. Its initial survey was completed in 1882, but the need for contin- uous revisions caused it to be reactivated a few years later. The Topographical Engineers merged with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in 1863, and the Lake Survey remained in the hands of the Corps of Engineers until 1970, when it became part of the newly formed National Ocean Survey (now known as the National Ocean Service).
The U.S. Lake Survey conducted far more rigorous surveys than those of the General Land Office, which used instruments no more sophisticated than a surveyors compass and a Gunters chain. The Lake Survey used an array of precision instruments and employed triangulation to form the geographic framework of the maps. Triangulation allowed the transfer of geographical coordinates from point to point throughout the system and, for the first time, geographical locations were determined with precision. Inland navigation prompted Congress to order a variety of government surveys. During the era of canal building, surveys like the one for the Portage Canal were common. Most of them were conducted by the Corps of Engineers, as were the surveys of the great rivers, such as the Mississippi.
The degree of accuracy accorded Great Lakes navigators was generally not matched on land for many years to come. The task of precisely mapping the United States by covering it with large-scale topographic quadrangle maps was given to the newly formed U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in the 1880s. John Wesley Powell, the second director of the USGS, stated that the mapping of the United States could be accomplished in 25 years, but that goal was not accomplished until the 1980s. The first topographic maps of Wisconsin appeared in the 1890s, when much of the southeastern part of the state was surveyed. The surveys were quickly done, however, and most of the sheets needed at least minor revision within the next decade. Despite a rapid start, the topographic mapping of Wisconsin bogged down and ultimately was not completed until 1983. Mapping standards changed entirely with the application of aerial photography around 1930. Following World War II, all Wisconsin topographic sheets were derived from photographs.
Today, polar-orbiting satellites with thematic mappers can, in a single day, record images that reveal Great Lakes water quality and temperature, the streets and large buildings of urban areas, and the general health of forests, wetlands and farmlands, including the identity of such crops as corn, hay and alfalfa. The detailed precision of todays computerized Space Age technology no doubt would have astounded Nicolas Sanson—but the seventeenth-century mapmakers ability to create a fairly accurate map of a world he had only heard and read about is equally astounding to twenty-first-century mapmakers.

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1756 Nicolas Bellin Antique Map of the City of Boston & Charlestown w/ Harbor

1756 Nicolas Bellin Antique Map of the City of Boston & Charlestown w/ Harbor

  • Title : Plan De La Ville De Boston Et Ses Environs Renvoy pour la Ville de Boston...
  • Date : 1756
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition
  • Ref:  93122
  • Size: 15 1/2in x 10 1/2in (395mm x 270mm)

Description:
This original hand coloured antique map of Boston and surrounding areas - one of the earliest obtainable maps of the city - by Jacques Nicholas Bellin in 1756 - was published in the French edition of Antoine-François Prevosts 20 volume L Histoire Generale des Voyages published by Pierre de Hondt in the Hague between 1747 & 1785.

Beautifully hand coloured map with great street and building detail in both Boston and Charlestown, showing parts of Ronde Isle and the mainland. Important buildings and areas identified in an idex at the left of the map. Including three cannon batteries, the Presbyterian Church, the Quaker temple, the Anabaptist Church, the City Hall, the Armory, Faneuil Hall (Spelled Fanal), etc. (Ref: Tooley; M&B)

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: - Original & later
Colors used: - Blue, pink, red, green, yellow
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 15 1/2in x 10 1/2in (395mm x 270mm)
Plate size: - 11 1/2in x 7 1/2in (285mm x 190mm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (12mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - Folds as issued
Verso: - None

Background: 
Boston is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.
Boston is one of the oldest cities in the United States, founded on the Shawmut Peninsula in 1630 by Puritan settlers from England. It was the scene of several key events of the American Revolution, such as the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, the Battle of Bunker Hill, and the Siege of Boston. Upon U.S. independence from Great Britain, it continued to be an important port and manufacturing hub as well as a center for education and culture.
In the 1820s, Boston\\\'s population grew rapidly, and the city\\\'s ethnic composition changed dramatically with the first wave of European immigrants. Irish immigrants dominated the first wave of newcomers during this period, especially following the Irish Potato Famine; by 1850, about 35,000 Irish lived in Boston. In the latter half of the 19th century, the city saw increasing numbers of Irish, Germans, Lebanese, Syrians, French Canadians, and Russian and Polish Jews settling in the city. By the end of the 19th century, Boston\\\'s core neighborhoods had become enclaves of ethnically distinct immigrants. Italians inhabited the North End, Irish dominated South Boston and Charlestown, and Russian Jews lived in the West End. Irish and Italian immigrants brought with them Roman Catholicism. Currently, Catholics make up Boston\\\'s largest religious community and the Irish have played a major role in Boston politics since the early 20th century; prominent figures include the Kennedys, Tip O\\\'Neill, and John F. Fitzgerald.
Between 1631 and 1890, the city tripled its area through land reclamation by filling in marshes, mud flats, and gaps between wharves along the waterfront. The largest reclamation efforts took place during the 19th century; beginning in 1807, the crown of Beacon Hill was used to fill in a 50-acre mill pond that later became the Haymarket Square area. The present-day State House sits atop this lowered Beacon Hill. Reclamation projects in the middle of the century created significant parts of the South End, the West End, the Financial District, and Chinatown.
After the Great Boston Fire of 1872, workers used building rubble as landfill along the downtown waterfront. During the mid- to-late 19th century, workers filled almost 600 acres of brackish Charles River marshlands west of Boston Common with gravel brought by rail from the hills of Needham Heights. The city annexed the adjacent towns of South Boston (1804), East Boston (1836), Roxbury (1868), Dorchester (including present day Mattapan and a portion of South Boston) (1870), Brighton (including present day Allston) (1874), West Roxbury (including present day Jamaica Plain and Roslindale) (1874), Charlestown (1874), and Hyde Park (1912). Other proposals were unsuccessful for the annexation of Brookline, Cambridge and Chelsea.

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1856 Delafield Large Antique Lithograph Map Siege of Sevastopol Crimea, 1854-55

1856 Delafield Large Antique Lithograph Map Siege of Sevastopol Crimea, 1854-55

  • Title : Sebastopol and ts Environs showing the Russian Defences and the Approaches and other Works of Attack of the Allied Armies during the Seige of 1854-55 from the Report of Gen. Niel Chief of the French Eng. prepared to accompany the report of Major Delafield on the art of War in Europe in 1854, 55 & 56
  • Date : 1856
  • Condition: (A) Very Good Condition
  • Ref:  90124
  • Size: 41in x 29in (1.040m x 735mm) 

Description:
This large, scarce, original lithograph antique map of the defences of the city of Sevastopol, on the Crimean Peninsula on the Black Sea, during the Crimean War and the siege of Sevastopol in 1854-55, was published by the American Army Officer Major Richard Delafield in his 1856 report to the Secretary of War, Jefferson Davis, Report on the Art of War in Europe in 1854, 1855, and 1856 The lithography was completed by Bowen & Co of Philadelphia. Very rare map in VG condition.
An amazing very large lithograph map, highly detailed, illustrating the Russian defences of the city of Sevastopol and the attack position of the British, French & Turkish attacking positions.

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: -
Colors used: -
General color appearance: -
Paper size: - 41in x 29in (1.040m x 735mm)
Plate size: - 41in x 29in (1.040m x 735mm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (12mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - Small repair along left fold, folds as issued
Verso: - Several folds re-enforced with archival tape

Background: 
Siege of Sevastopol (1854–1855)
The siege of Sevastopol (at the time the siege of Sebastopol) lasted from October 1854 until September 1855, during the Crimean War. The allies (French, Ottoman, and British) landed at Eupatoria on 14 September 1854, intending to make a triumphal march to Sevastopol, the capital of the Crimea, with 50,000 men. The 56-kilometre traverse took a year of fighting against the Russians. Major battles along the way were Alma (September 1854), Balaklava (October 1854), Inkerman (November 1854), Tchernaya (August 1855), Redan (September 1855), and, finally, Sevastopol (September 1855). During the siege, the allied navy undertook six bombardments of the capital, on 17 October 1854; and on 9 April, 6 June, 17 June, 17 August, and 5 September 1855.
Sevastopol is one of the classic sieges of all time. The city of Sevastopol was the home of the Tsardefencess Black Sea Fleet, which threatened the Mediterranean. The Russian field army withdrew before the allies could encircle it. The siege was the culminating struggle for the strategic Russian port in 1854–55 and was the final episode in the Crimean War.
During the Victorian Era, these battles were repeatedly memorialized. The siege of Sevastopol was the subject of Crimean soldier Leo Tolstoydefencess Sebastopol Sketches and the subject of the first Russian feature film, Defence of Sevastopol. The Battle of Balaklava was made famous by Alfred, Lord Tennysondefencess poem defencesThe Charge of the Light Brigadedefences and Robert Gibbdefencess painting The Thin Red Line. A panorama of the siege itself was painted by Franz Roubaud.

Delafield, Richard Major General 1798 - 1873
Delafield was a United States Army officer for 52 years. He served as superintendent of the United States Military Academy for 12 years. At the start of the American Civil War, then Colonel Delafield helped equip and send volunteers from New York to the Union Army. He also was in command of defences around New York harbor from 1861 to April 1864. On April 22, 1864, he was promoted to Brigadier General in the Regular Army of the United States and Chief of Engineers. On March 8, 1866, President Andrew Johnson nominated Delafield for appointment to the grade of brevet major general in the Regular Army, to rank from March 13, 1865, and the United States Senate confirmed the appointment on May 4, 1866, reconfirmed due to a technicality on July 14, 1866. He retired from the US Army on August 8, 1866. He later served on two commissions relating to improvements to Boston Harbor and to lighthouses. He also served as a regent of the Smithsonian Institution.
Delafield served as assistant engineer in the construction of Hampton Roads defences from 1819–1824 and was in charge of fortifications and surveys in the Mississippi River delta area in 1824-1832. While superintendent of repair work on the Cumberland Road east of the Ohio River, he designed and built Dunlaps Creek Bridge in Brownsville, Pennsylvania, the first cast-iron tubular-arch bridge in the United States. Commissioned a major of engineers in July 1838, he was appointed superintendent of the Military Academy after the fire of 1838 and served till 1845. He designed the new buildings and the new cadet uniform that first displayed the castle insignia. He superintended the construction of coast defences for New York Harbor from 1846 to 1855.
In the beginning of 1855, Delafield was appointed by the Secretary of War, Jefferson Davis a head of the board of officers, later called The Delafield Commission, and sent to Europe to study the European military. The board included Captain George B. McClellan and Major Alfred Mordecai. They inspected the state of the military in Great Britain, Germany, the Austrian Empire, France, Belgium, and Russia, and served as military observers during the Crimean War. After his return in April 1856, Delafield submitted a report which was later published as a book by Congress, Report on the Art of War in Europe in 1854, 1855, and 1856. The book was suppressed during the American Civil War due to fears that it would be instructive to Confederate engineers as it contained multiple drawings and descriptions of military fortifications.
Delafield served as superintendent of the Military Academy again in 1856-1861. In January 1861, he was succeeded by Captain Pierre G. T. Beauregard, who was dismissed shortly after Beauregards home state of Louisiana seceded from the Union, and Delafield returned as superintendent serving until March 1, 1861. In the beginning of the Civil War he advised the governor of New York Edwin D. Morgan during the volunteer force creation. Then, in 1861–1864, he was put in charge of New York Harbor defences, including Governors Island and Fort at Sandy Hook. On May 19, 1864, he was commissioned a brigadier-general after replacing Joseph Gilbert Totten, who had died, as the Chief of Engineers, United States Army Corps of Engineers, on April 22, 1864. He stayed in charge of the Bureau of Engineers of the War Department until his retirement on August 8, 1866. On March 8, 1866, President Andrew Johnson nominated Delafield for appointment to the grade of brevet major general in the Regular Army of the United States, to rank from March 13, 1865, and the United States Senate confirmed the appointment on May 4, 1866 and reconfirmed it due to a technicality on July 14, 1866.After retirement Delafield served as a regent of the Smithsonian Institution and a member of the Lighthouse Board. He died in Washington, D.C. on November 5, 1873.
The Jamaican and English nurses who treated the wounded during these battles were much celebrated, most famously Mary Seacole and Florence Nightingale.

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1777 Homann Antique Map Colonial United States, North America Revolutionary War

1777 Homann Antique Map Colonial United States, North America Revolutionary War

  • Title : America Septentrionalis a domino d Anville in Galiis edita nunc in Anglia coloniis in interiorem Virginiam deductis nec non fluvii Ohio cursu aucta notisq geographicis et historicis illustrata.....1777
  • Date : 1777
  • Condition: (A) Very Good Condition
  • Ref:  93123
  • Size: 20 1/2in x 18 1/2in (510mm x 470mm)

Description:
This magnificent hand coloured original copper-plate engraved antique map of the Colonial United States, at the beginning of the American Revolutionary War, was engraved in 1777 - dated in cartouche - by the Homann firm, Germany.

Detailed map of the British Colonies in North America, published at the beginning of the American Revolution. The map is based on the cartography of J.B.B. D Anville, although the political boundaries are British leaning, based upon Thomas Jefferys map of the British Colonies published in 1755 for the political detail. The map depicts the various British colonial claims, including: Bounds of Hudson Bay by the Treaty of Utrecht, North Limits of New England by Charter of 1620 (to the west of Lake Superior) Boundary between Virginia & New England, Boundary between Carolina & Virginia, Boundary of South Carolina by Charter of 1663. Also shown are notes many British Forts, a well as Walkers Settlement on the Cumberland or Shannowens River. Many Indian Tribes are also noted. To the bottom right and top left are annotations of the English occupation of North America dating back to Cabot in 1497, with a brief historical account of each of the British Colonies. Also included is a similar account of the French history in North America.

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: - Original & later
Colors used: - Yellow, green, blue, pink
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 20 1/2in x 18 1/2in (510mm x 470mm)
Plate size: - 20 1/2in x 18 1/2in (510mm x 470mm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (12mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Margins cropped to plate-mark
Plate area: - Age toned
Verso: - Age toned

Background: 
The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence, was an 18th-century war between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies (allied with France) which declared independence as the United States of America.
After 1765, growing constitutional and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress (with the exception of Georgia) to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power.
British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia in Concord led to open combat and a British defeat on April 19, 1775. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, the Americans failed decisively in an attempt to invade Quebec and raise insurrection against the British. On July 2, 1776, the Second Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777.
Burgoynes defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a Southern strategy led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at Kings Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781.
Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in America, but the war continued overseas. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive, but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.

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1756 Homann Antique Map Colonial United States North America French Indian War

1756 Homann Antique Map Colonial United States North America French Indian War

  • Title : America Septentrionalis a domino d Anville in Galiis edita nunc in Anglia coloniis in interiorem Virginiam deductis nec non fluvii Ohio cursu aucta notisq geographicis et historicis illustrata.....1756
  • Date : 1756
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition
  • Ref:  93124 
  • Size: 25 1/2in x 21in (650mm x 535mm)

Description:
This magnificent hand coloured original copper-plate engraved antique 1st edition map of the Colonial United States, at the beginning of the French-Indian war, was engraved in 1756 - dated in cartouche - by the Homann firm, Germany.

Impressive first edition of The Homann map of the English Colonies in North America prior to the start of the French and Indian War. The map stretches just west of the Mississippi River to the east and from James Bay through the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico. Although most of the text is in German, there is also much in English, including numerous place named annotations associated the French and Indian War, such as the locations of Fort Duquesne and Fort Necessity, both taken by the French in 1754. Thus although the cartographer credits D Anville for the basic cartography, it is clear he is drawing from English, not French, sources. Bottom right and upper left are notes offering the history of North America.

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: - Original & later
Colors used: - Yellow, green, blue, pink
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 25 1/2in x 21in (650mm x 535mm)
Plate size: - 21in x 18 1/2in (535mm x 485mm)
Margins: - Min 1in (25mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Light soiling in margins
Plate area: - None
Verso: - None

Background: 
The French and Indian War (1754–63) comprised the North American theatre of the worldwide Seven Years War of 1756–63. It pitted the colonies of British America against those of New France. Both sides were supported by military units from their parent countries, as well as by American Indian allies. At the start of the war, the French North American colonies had a population of roughly 60,000 settlers, compared with 2 million in the British North American colonies. The outnumbered French particularly depended on the Indians. The European nations declared war on one another in 1756 following months of localized conflict, escalating the war from a regional affair into an intercontinental conflict.
The name French and Indian War is used mainly in the United States. It refers to the two enemies of the British colonists, the royal French forces and their various American Indian allies. The British colonists were supported at various times by the Iroquois, Catawba, and Cherokee, and the French colonists were supported by Wabanaki Confederacy members Abenaki and Mikmaq, and Algonquin, Lenape, Ojibwa, Ottawa, Shawnee, and Wyandot.
British and other European historians use the term the Seven Years War, as do English-speaking Canadians. French Canadians call it La guerre de la Conquête (the War of the Conquest) or (rarely) the Fourth Intercolonial War.
Fighting took place primarily along the frontiers between New France and the British colonies, from Virginia in the south to Newfoundland in the north. It began with a dispute over control of the confluence of the Allegheny River and Monongahela River called the Forks of the Ohio, and the site of the French Fort Duquesne in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The dispute erupted into violence in the Battle of Jumonville Glen in May 1754, during which Virginia militiamen under the command of 22-year-old George Washington ambushed a French patrol.
In 1755, six colonial governors in North America met with General Edward Braddock, the newly arrived British Army commander, and planned a four-way attack on the French. None succeeded, and the main effort by Braddock proved a disaster; he lost the Battle of the Monongahela on July 9, 1755 and died a few days later. British operations failed in the frontier areas of Pennsylvania and New York during 1755–57 due to a combination of poor management, internal divisions, effective Canadian scouts, French regular forces, and Indian warrior allies. In 1755, the British captured Fort Beauséjour on the border separating Nova Scotia from Acadia, and they ordered the expulsion of the Acadians (1755–64) soon afterwards. Orders for the deportation were given by William Shirley, Commander-in-Chief, North America, without direction from Great Britain. The Acadians were expelled, both those captured in arms and those who had sworn the loyalty oath to His Britannic Majesty. Indians likewise were driven off the land to make way for settlers from New England.
The British colonial government fell in the region of modern Nova Scotia after several disastrous campaigns in 1757, including a failed expedition against Louisbourg and the Siege of Fort William Henry; this last was followed by Indians torturing and massacring their British victims. William Pitt came to power and significantly increased British military resources in the colonies at a time when France was unwilling to risk large convoys to aid the limited forces that they had in New France, preferring to concentrate their forces against Prussia and its allies in the European theater of the war. Between 1758 and 1760, the British military launched a campaign to capture the Colony of Canada (part of New France). They succeeded in capturing territory in surrounding colonies and ultimately the city of Quebec (1759). The British later lost the Battle of Sainte-Foy west of Quebec (1760), but the French ceded Canada in accordance with the Treaty of Paris (1763).
The outcome was one of the most significant developments in a century of Anglo-French conflict. France ceded to Great Britain its territory east of the Mississippi. It ceded French Louisiana west of the Mississippi River (including New Orleans) to its ally Spain in compensation for Spains loss to Britain of Florida. (Spain had ceded Florida to Britain in exchange for the return of Havana, Cuba.) Frances colonial presence north of the Caribbean was reduced to the islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, confirming Great Britains position as the dominant colonial power in eastern North America.

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1715 Homann Large Antique Map North America, Great Lakes to New Mexico & Florida

1715 Homann Large Antique Map North America, Great Lakes to New Mexico & Florida

  • Title : Regni Mexicani seu Novae Hispaniae, Floridae, Novae Angliae, Carolinae, Virginiae et Pensylvaniae, nec non Insularum, Archipelagi Mexicani in America Septentrionali....Joh Baptista Homanno
  • Date : 1715
  • Condition: (A) Very Good Condition
  • Ref:  93118
  • Size: 23in x 19 1/4in (585mm x 485mm)

Description:
This large original beautifully hand coloured antique map of North America, centering on the claims of France, Spain & England in the New World, was published by J B Homann in 1715.
This is a magnificent map, with all the political nuisances of the time, illustrated throughout the map. The tension between the three European super powers is evident, from the waning Spanish, to the aspirational French and the upcoming British. The French borders in Louisiana and Canada push west and south far beyond reality, encroaching into New Mexico, Canada & the British colonial states. Large Spanish warships are seen to overpower both the British & French fleets in one cartouche and in the other the powerless native Americans are seen as their gold is plundered by all. 
With the death of Queen Anne in 1714 and the ascension of George I to the British throne, the era of British power in the New World will lead to the inevitable hard fought freedom of a new country, the United States. A great early 18th century map.

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: - Original & later
Colors used: - Yellow, green, blue, pink
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 23in x 19 1/4in (585mm x 485mm)
Plate size: - 23in x 19 1/4in (585mm x 485mm)
Margins: - Min 1in (25mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Soiling in margins, L,R & B margins cropped to plate mark.
Plate area: - Age toning
Verso: - Earlier backed onto contemporary paper

Background: 
Homanns 1715 map of North America from Mexico, Florida, New England, the West Indies, and the Mississippi Valley (Louisiana) was based on the earlier 1703 map of the same region by Claude Delisle, Carte du Mexique et de la Florida des Terres Angloises, who derived his information from the likes of La Salle, Bienville, d Iberville, Le Sueur and other French, British & Spanish explorers.
The map centres on Louisiana and the Mississippi River Valley, with detailed information of Mexico to the Pacific, north to New Mexico and the Great Lakes. East to the Colonial states, French Florida, The West Indies and northern South America.
Louisiana is divided as per the French borders in Delisles map, with large French aspirations extending well into Spanish North America from the Rio Grande to the Appalachian Mountains. France also lays claim to large sways of land in Canada and the whole of the Great Lakes and much of the northern colonial states of the time. One of the earliest maps to accurately portray the mouth of the Mississippi and the Great Lakes region.
An elaborately decorative map with illustrations of Spanish unloading gold while the native Americans look on. To the lower left is shown a large Spanish Galleon, with guns blazing on the smaller French or British fleet, highlighting the still evident power of the Spanish. A very political European view of the new world in the early 18th century.

$1,750.00 USD
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1768 De Vaugondy Large Antique Map Great Lakes of North America & Eastern Canada

1768 De Vaugondy Large Antique Map Great Lakes of North America & Eastern Canada

  • Title : Partie De L Amerique Septent. qui comprend La Nouvelle France ou le Canada...Par le Sr Robert de Vaugondy; Supplement pour Les Lacs du Canada
  • Date : 1768
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition
  • Ref:  93128
  • Size: 30in x 22in (760mm x 560mm)

Description:
This large original beautifully hand coloured, scarce 2nd edition antique map of The Great Lakes of North America, Eastern Canada & part of New England, with border changes from the 1763 Treaty of Paris, was published in 1768 by Robert Du Vaugondy in his Atlas Universal.
A nice example, beautiful hand colour on age toned heavy paper with original margins with a heavy dark ink denoting an early pressing.

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: - Original & later
Colors used: - Yellow, green, blue, pink
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 30in x 22in (760mm x 560mm)
Plate size: - 25in x 19 1/2in (635mm x 495mm)
Margins: - Min 1in (25mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Light spotting in top margin
Plate area: - None
Verso: - None

Background: 
The mapping of the Great Lakes region began in the early seventeenth century, when the first indications of the lakes appeared on maps made by European cartographers. By the mid-1600s, the maps of French Royal Geographer Nicolas Sanson had recognizable depictions of all five Great Lakes. His map is imprecise—Lake Superior lacks its distinctive shape and is unbounded on the west—but Lakes Ontario, Erie, Huron and Michigan can be discerned without difficulty. The lack of any reference to the Mississippi River in Sansons map reflects how little cartographers really knew about the region at the time.
Until the late eighteenth century, maps were made with information acquired in an irregular and imprecise manner. They were not based on formal surveys, but on written records supplemented with sketches by explorers, missionaries and trappers traveling the Upper Midwest. European cartographers had the task of fitting together this often contradictory information and putting the results into the framework of a geographic map. Instead of being mapped in terms of latitude and longitude, prominent places were usually located in relation to other places, which were, of course, similarly positioned. Distances could not be measured with any accuracy at this time, so these maps were liable to gross errors.
The early maps in the Making Maps, Mapping History exhibit provide a capsulized view of the growth of geographical knowledge of the Great Lakes region. As noted above, Sansons map was the first to display all five of the Great Lakes. Vincenzo Maria Coronelli, the cosmographer of the Republic of Venice, used information supplied by Jesuit missionaries in a 1688 map that was the first accurate depiction of the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River. French cartographer Guillaume De LIsle further refined the image and provided an outline that was not substantially improved until surveyors entered the region in the nineteenth century.
The first official government surveys of the Great Lakes were hydrographic surveys conducted by the British Admiralty under the direction of Capt. Henry W. Bayfield. Bayfield spent his entire career surveying the St. Lawrence River and the Great Lakes, beginning with Lake Superior in 1816. The lake-shore city of Bayfield, Wis., was named in honor of this pioneer surveyor.
One of the first acts of the new government of the United States was to establish a system for the orderly settlement of its western lands. Under the Ordinance of 1785, land surveyors went into the western territories in advance of settlement to divide the land into townships of 36 square- mile sections. Though mapping was not the governments primary aim, the surveys provided ample grist for the mapmakers mill, and the regions were, for the first time, mapped with considerable accuracy. The federal government, however, was not yet in the business of making maps for the public. That was left to enterprising individuals, such as Samuel Morrison, Elisha Dwelle and Joshua Hathaway, who produced one of the first topographical maps of the Wisconsin Territory in 1837.
The surveys of the General Land Office served as the basis for the mapping of much of the Great Lakes region from around 1800, when the surveys began, until about 1890, when the U.S. Geological Survey began to map the region again. In some cases, however, the old surveys were not entirely superseded until the mid-20th century. The distinctive feature of maps based on these surveys is the invariable presence of the township grid.

As population and commerce in the Great Lakes region grew, the federal government assumed responsibility for charting the lakes for navigation. The U.S. Lake Survey began in 1841 with an appropriation of $15,000. Before the Civil War, the work was conducted by officers of the Corps of Topographical Engineers. Its initial survey was completed in 1882, but the need for contin- uous revisions caused it to be reactivated a few years later. The Topographical Engineers merged with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in 1863, and the Lake Survey remained in the hands of the Corps of Engineers until 1970, when it became part of the newly formed National Ocean Survey (now known as the National Ocean Service).
The U.S. Lake Survey conducted far more rigorous surveys than those of the General Land Office, which used instruments no more sophisticated than a surveyors compass and a Gunters chain. The Lake Survey used an array of precision instruments and employed triangulation to form the geographic framework of the maps. Triangulation allowed the transfer of geographical coordinates from point to point throughout the system and, for the first time, geographical locations were determined with precision. Inland navigation prompted Congress to order a variety of government surveys. During the era of canal building, surveys like the one for the Portage Canal were common. Most of them were conducted by the Corps of Engineers, as were the surveys of the great rivers, such as the Mississippi.
The degree of accuracy accorded Great Lakes navigators was generally not matched on land for many years to come. The task of precisely mapping the United States by covering it with large-scale topographic quadrangle maps was given to the newly formed U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in the 1880s. John Wesley Powell, the second director of the USGS, stated that the mapping of the United States could be accomplished in 25 years, but that goal was not accomplished until the 1980s. The first topographic maps of Wisconsin appeared in the 1890s, when much of the southeastern part of the state was surveyed. The surveys were quickly done, however, and most of the sheets needed at least minor revision within the next decade. Despite a rapid start, the topographic mapping of Wisconsin bogged down and ultimately was not completed until 1983. Mapping standards changed entirely with the application of aerial photography around 1930. Following World War II, all Wisconsin topographic sheets were derived from photographs.
Today, polar-orbiting satellites with thematic mappers can, in a single day, record images that reveal Great Lakes water quality and temperature, the streets and large buildings of urban areas, and the general health of forests, wetlands and farmlands, including the identity of such crops as corn, hay and alfalfa. The detailed precision of todays computerized Space Age technology no doubt would have astounded Nicolas Sanson—but the seventeenth-century mapmakers ability to create a fairly accurate map of a world he had only heard and read about is equally astounding to twenty-first-century mapmakers.

$1,049.00 USD
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1768 Robert De Vaugondy Large Antique 2nd edition Map of Colonial United States

1768 Robert De Vaugondy Large Antique 2nd edition Map of Colonial United States

  • Title : Partie De L Amerique Septentrionale, qui Comprend Le Cours De L Ohio...Par le Sr Robert de Vaugondy
  • Date : 1768
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition
  • Ref:  93129
  • Size: 30in x 22in (760mm x 560mm)

Description:
This large original beautifully hand coloured, scarce 2nd edition antique map of the east coast of the United States, illustrating the course of the Ohio River and stretching from New England to the Carolinas, north to the Great Lakes and south to the Mississippi - with an inset map of The Carolinas - was published in 1768 by Robert Du Vaugondy in his Atlas Universal.
This is one of the best examples of this map I have seen, beautiful hand colour on age toned heavy paper with original margins with a heavy dark ink denoting an early pressing.

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: - Original & later
Colors used: - Yellow, green, blue, pink
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 30in x 22in (760mm x 560mm)
Plate size: - 25in x 19 1/2in (635mm x 495mm)
Margins: - Min 1in (25mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Light spotting in top margin
Plate area: - None
Verso: - None

Background: 
Second state of the early de Vaugondy map of the British colonies, with changes after the 1763 Treaty of Paris, with Virginia & Carolina extended to the Mississippi and Pennsylvania extended to Lake Erie. The majority of geographical information is based upon John Mitchells great map of North America from the mid 1750s, also drawing from Lewis, Evans on the Middle British Colonies and Joshua Frys and Peter Jeffersons map of Virginia and Maryland. The Mitchell map was the culmination of many years of British surveying in the North American Colonies and was considered one of the best maps of the continent available to Europeans and Americans in the mid-eighteenth century.
De Vaugondys rendition does not copy the full scope of Mitchells map but instead focuses on the colonies stretching from southern Maine to the Carolinas. In the top left corner is an inset of South Carolina and Georgia. De Vaugondy also pays special attention to the river systems and settlements. This map shows some of the earliest accurate information of the trans-Allegheny regions (the Ohio River, Kentucky, Tennessee and Parts of Ohio) and inland areas to the southeast of the Great Lakes and interior of New England.
Maine is still part of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. During this era. The dispute between New Hampshire and New York over who controlled the area which is now Vermont has been resolved. The outbreak of the French & Indian War (Seven Years War) briefly suspended interest in the disputed area, and it was not until 1764 that the British crown upheld New Yorks claim to Vermont. Included is a beautiful title cartouche in the Rococo style. (Ref: Tooley; M&B)

$1,499.00 USD
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1750 Robert De Vaugondy Large Antique Map of Colonial North America, 1st Edition

1750 Robert De Vaugondy Large Antique Map of Colonial North America, 1st Edition

  • TitleAmérique Septentrionale, dressée, sur les Relations les plus modernes des Voyageurs et Navigateurs, et divisée suivant les differentes possessions des Européens...Par Le Sr Robert De Vaugondy 1750 [North America, drawn from the most recent accounts of the Voyagers and Navigators, and divided according to the different possessions of the Europeans...Robert De Vaugondy 1750
  • Date : 1750
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition
  • Ref:  93048
  • Size: 30 1/2in x 21 1/2in (775mm x 545mm)

Description:
This large beautifully hand coloured original 1st edition antique map of North America by Robert De Vaugondy in 1750 - dated in cartouche - was published in the 1757 edition of Atlas Universel, one of the most important atlases of the 18th century.
A beautifully executed & iconic mid 18th century antique map of the entire continent of North America, from Arctic Canada to Central America.
This map is a must for any American map collection. Beautiful original hand colour, a heavy impression (denoting an early pressing) on heavy sturdy paper with original margins, an exciting map .

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: - Original
Colors used: - Yellow, green, blue, pink
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 30 1/2in x 21 1/2in (775mm x 545mm)
Plate size: - 25in x 19 1/2in (635mm x 495mm)
Margins: - Min 1in (25mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - None
Verso: - None

Background: 
This attractive map depicts a fascinating period time in the history of North America, immediately before the French and Indian War. The British Thirteen Colonies hug the Atlantic seaboard, while the immense Gallic empire, embracing both New France (Canada) and Louisiana (the Mississippi Basin) occupy the majority of the interior of the continent. This highly detailed map labels numerous native villages and European forts in the interior of the continent. Spanish Mexico reaches all the way north to modern-day Colorado, and Baja California is shown accurately to be a peninsula, and not an island as previously thought. The Pacific Northwest remains entirely enigmatic, labelled as the Terres Inconnues. The map also depicts the islands of the Caribbean, which are shown to be in the possession of the various European powers. Vaugondy consulted several sources in devising his map including Bellins excellent rendering of the Great Lakes, and Guillame De L Isles and Jean-Baptiste D\'Anvilles maps of the Mississippi Basin. The composition is graced by an elegant title cartouche featuring a waterfall inhabited by a cayman, and framed by coulisses of palm trees accompanied by native Americans.

$1,499.00 USD
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1795 (1806) Canzler Large Antique Map Australia, Ulimaroa, New Zealand SE Asia

1795 (1806) Canzler Large Antique Map Australia, Ulimaroa, New Zealand SE Asia

  • Title : Karte vom Funften Erdtheil oder Polynaesien-Inselwelt oder Australien oder Sudindien (Map of the fifth earth or Polynesia or Australia or South India.)
  • Size: 24 1/4in x 20 1/2in (615mm x 520mm)
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition
  • Date : 1795 (1806)
  • Ref #:  93121

Description:
This large original hand coloured copper-plate engraved, antique map of Australia, New Zealand and SE Asia by Friedrich Gottlieb Canzler in 1795, was published by the Homann Firm in 1806.
A distinct map with the short lived alternative name of Ulimaroa for New Holland, given by Canzler after Daniel Djurberg mistakenly interperated the New Zealand Maori word, Olhemaroa, from Cooks diary, for Australia. The real interpretation being Long Hand, the Maori name for New Caledonia.

There are two records in Cooks diary relating to Ulimaroa....

5th Feb 1769....This place we concluded to be the land difcovered by Tafman, which he called Cape Maria Van Diemen, and finding thefe people fo intelligent, we inquired farther, if they knew of any country befides their own: they anfwered, that they never had vifisted any other, but that their anceftors had told them, that to the N.W. by N., or N.N.W. there was a country of great extent, called Ulimaroa, which people had failed in a very large canoe

5th Feb 1770.....When we were under fail, our old man aTopaa came on board to take his leave of us, and as we were ftill defirous of making farther enquiries whether any memory of Tafman had been preferved among thefe people, Tupia was directed to afk him whether he had ever heard that fuch a veffel as ours had vifited the country. To this he replied in the negative, but faid, that his anceftors had told him there had once come to this place a fmall veffel, from a distant country, called Ulimaroa, in which were four men, who, upon coming on fhore, were all killed: upon being afked where this diftant land lay, he pointed to the northward. Of Ulimaroa we had heard fome-thing before, from people about the Bay of Iflands, who faid that their anceftors had vifisted it; and Tupia had alfo talked to us of Ulimaroa.

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: - Original
Colors used: - Yellow, green, blue, pink
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 24 1/4in x 20 1/2in (615mm x 520mm)
Plate size: - 24 1/2in x 19in (620mm x 490mm)
Margins: - Min 1in (25mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Light age toning
Plate area: - None
Verso: - None

Background: 
Ulimaroa was a name given to Australia by the Swedish geographer and cartographer Daniel Djurberg in 1776. Djurberg adapted the name from Olhemaroa, a Māori word found in Hawkesworths edition of Captain James Cook and Sir Joseph Banks journals which is thought to have been a misunderstood translation — the Māori were actually referring to Grand Terre, the largest island of New Caledonia. Djurberg believed the name meant something like big red land, whereas modern linguists believe it meant long hand — echoing the geography of Grand Terre. The spurious name continued to be reproduced on certain European maps, particularly some Austrian, Czech, German and Swedish maps, until around 1820, including in Carl Almqvists 1817 novel Parjumouf Saga ifrån Nya Holland (Stockholm, 1817).

Canzler, Friedrich Gottlieb 1764-1811
Friedrich Gottlieb Canzler was born in Wolgast, Sweden in 1764. He graduated from the school in his hometown and from 1781 to 1783 the Sundische Gymnasium in Stralsund . He then studied history , geography , statistics and the Swedish language at the University of Göttingen . After completing his studies, he also received his doctorate and habilitation in Göttingen, and worked as a Privatdozent for history, geography, statistics and cameralistics .
In addition, he published in Göttingen from July 1789 to February 1791 the General Political State Newspaper for all Stands, for which he ran his own university and newspaper printing plant, and founded in 1797 an Academic Reading Museum. Two years later he was appointed Professor of Statistics, State Economics, Cameral, Financial and Commerz Sciences at the University of Greifswald where he worked until his death in 1811.
Selected Works:
- New magazine for recent history, Earth and ethnology. Leipzig 1790
- English language teaching for Germans. Göttingen 1796
- General Litteraturarchiv for history, geography and statistics. Leipzig 1792-1798 (as publisher)
- Map of the fifth earth or Polynesia or Australia or South India. Nuremberg 1795, 1805 and 1806 (as well as 1813 with corrections by Christian Gottlieb Reichard)
- Front India or Hindostan or East India on the side of the Ganges. Nuremberg 1804

$1,750.00 USD
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1825 Philippe Vandermaelen Large Antique Map The Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia

1825 Philippe Vandermaelen Large Antique Map The Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia

Description:
This very large original hand coloured antique lithograph map of the Gulf of Carpentaria was published by Philippe Vandermaelen in his revolutionary 1825 Atlas universel de geographie physique, politique, statistique et mineralogique.

Until the publication of this atlas, large detailed maps of this region of remote Australia were uncommon. The clean detailed lines and added hand colouring make this one of the most desirable early maps of northern Queensland and the NT.

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: - Original
Colors used: - Yellow, green, blue, pink
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 28 1/2in x 21in (725mm x 550mm)
Plate size: - 28 1/2in x 21in (725mm x 550mm)
Margins: - Min 1in (25mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - None
Verso: - None

Background: 
The first European explorer to visit the region (and Australia) was the Dutch Willem Janszoon (whose name is also written as Jansz) in 1605–6. His fellow countryman, Jan Carstenszoon (or Carstensz), visited in 1623 and named the gulf in honour of Pieter de Carpentier, at that time the Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies. Abel Tasman also explored the coast in 1644. The region was later explored and charted by Matthew Flinders in 1802 and 1803.
The first overland expedition to reach the Gulf was the Burke and Wills expedition, led by Robert O Hara Burke and William John Wills which left Melbourne, Victoria in August 1860 and reached the mouth of the Bynoe River in February 1861.

$850.00 USD
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1690 Nicolas Visscher Antique Map of Great Britain & Ireland

1690 Nicolas Visscher Antique Map of Great Britain & Ireland

  • Title : Magnae Britanniae Tabula Angliam, Scotiam, et Hiberniam Continens in Lucem Edita Fer Nicolaum Visscher
  • Size: 23in x 19 1/2in (585mm x 490mm)
  • Condition: (A) Very Good Condition
  • Date : 1690
  • Ref #:  93002

Description:
This large original hand coloured copper-plate engraved antique map of Great Britain & Ireland was published by Nicholas Visscher II in 1690.

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: - Original
Colors used: - Yellow, green, blue, pink
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 23in x 19 1/2in (585mm x 490mm)
Plate size: - 21in x 18 1/2in (535mm x 485mm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (12mm) 

Imperfections:
Margins: - Small bottom left section of margin into scale restored
Plate area: - Light age toning
Verso: - Age toning

Background: 
In 1558 Queen Elizabeth came to the throne in the midst of a fast changing world. In 1563 a nineteen sheet map, copies of which survive only in manuscript form, was completed by Laurence Nowell, and no doubt, the issue of Mercator\'s large-scale map of the British Isles in 1564 had an important influence on the thought of the period. A few years later a national survey was commissioned privately, although probably at the instigation of Lord Burghley, the Lord Treasurer, but subsequently was completed with royal encouragement. The outcome was Christopher Saxton\'s Atlas of EngIand and Wales, started about 1570 and published in 1579 - the first printed set of county maps and the first countrywide atlas on such a splendid scale produced anywhere. A Welsh antiquarian, Humphrey Lhuyd completed a set of surveys that were even more successful than Saxton in which he had produced fine manuscript maps of England and Wales which were used by Ortelius in editions of his Atlas from 1573 onwards.
The earliest maps of the 17th century, attributed to William Smith of the College of Heralds, covered only twelve counties based on Saxton/Norden and were presumably intended to be part of a complete new atlas. They were printed in the Low Countries in 1602-3 and were soon followed by maps for the Latin edition of Camden\'s Britannia dated 1607. In 1610-11 the first edition of John Speed\'s famous county Atlas The Theatre of the Empire of Great Britaine was published and immediately replaced Saxton\'s in popular appeal. Although Speed assembled much of his material from the earlier works of Saxton, Norden and others, a considerable part of the up-to-date information, especially relating to the inset town plans depicted on his maps, was obtained first hand. The maps undoubtedly owed much of their popularity to the splendid engravings of high quality made in the workshops in Amsterdam of Jodocus Hondius to whom Speed sent his manuscripts, the plates subsequently being returned to London for printing.
In 1645, Volume IV of the famous Blaeu World Atlas covering the counties of England and Wales was published in Amsterdam. These maps have always been esteemed as superb examples of engraving and design, the calligraphy being particularly splendid, but nevertheless they were nearly all based on Saxton and Speed and added little to geographical knowledge.
Not until the latter part of the century do we find an English map maker of originality with the capacity to put new ideas into practice. John Ogilby, one of the more colourful figures associated with cartography, started life as a dancing master and finished as King\'s Cosmographer and Geographic Printer. After publishing a small number of county maps, somewhat on the lines of John Norden he issued in 1675 the Britannia, the first practical series of detailed maps of the post roads of England and Wales on a standard scale of 1,760 yards to the mile. Up to the end of the century and beyond, reprints and revisions of Saxton\'s and Speed\'s atlases continued to appear and the only other noteworthy county maps were Richard Blome\'s Britannia (1673), John Overton\'s Atlas (c. 1670) and Robert Morden\'s maps for an English translation of Camden\'s Britannia published in 1695.
Another noted cartographer of the day was Captain Greenvile Collins, and of his work in surveying the coasts of Great Britain culminating in the issue in 1693 of the Great Britain\'s Coasting Pilot. Apart from these charts, English cartographers published during the century a number of world atlases. Speed was the first Englishman to produce a world atlas with the issue in 1627 of his A Prospect of the Most Famous Parts of the World. Other atlases appeared later in the century by Peter Heylin, John Seller, William Berry, Moses Pitt and Richard Blome, whilst Ogilby found time to issue maps of Africa, America and Asia. Far more important, from the purely scientific point of view, was the work of Edmund Halley, Astronomer Royal, who compiled and issued meteorological and magnetic charts in 1688 and 1701 respectively.
At the beginning of the eighteenth century the Dutch map trade was finally in decline, the French in the ascendant and the English to a great extent still dominated by Saxton and Speed except, as we have shown, in the spheres of sea charts and road maps. There were atlases by John Senex, the Bowles family, Emanuel and Thomas Bowen, Thomas Badeslade and the unique bird\'s-eye perspective views of the counties, The British Monarchy by George Bickham. In 1750-60 Bowen and Kitchin\'s The Large English Atlas containing maps on a rather larger scale than hitherto was published.
In 1759 the Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce offered an award of £100 for the best original surveys on this scale and by the end of the century about thirty counties had been re-surveyed. These maps, many of which formed, in later years, the basis for the first issues of county maps by the Ordnance Survey Office were not only decorative but a tremendous improvement geographically on earlier local maps. As a consequence, the skills and expertise of the new-style cartographers soon enabled them to cover the world as well as the domestic market. Thomas Jefferys was such a man; he was responsible for a number of the new 1 in. to 1 mile county surveys and he issued an edition of Saxton\'s much battered 200-year-old plates of the county maps, but he is better known for many fine maps of North America and the West Indies. His work was continued on the same lines by William Faden, trading as Faden and Jefferys. Other publishers such as Sayer and Bennett and their successors Laurie and Whittle published a prodigious range of maps, charts and atlases in the second half of the century. A major influence at this time was John Cary who, apart from organizing the first re-survey of post roads since Ogilby and subsequently printing the noted Travellers\' Companion, was a prolific publisher of atlases and maps of every kind of all parts of the world. After starting work with Cary, and taking part in the new road survey, Aaron Arrowsmith set up in his own business and went on to issue splendid large-scale maps of many parts of the world. Both Cary\'s and Arrowsmith\'s plates were used by other publishers until far into the next century and, in turn, their work was taken up and developed by James Wyld (Elder and Younger) and Tallis and Co.
Later into the 19th century some of the better known cartographers and publishers were by Henry Teesdale (1829-30), Christopher and John Greenwood, surveyors, Thomas Moule, a writer on heraldry and antiques (1830-36) and John Walker (1837) but by about the middle of the century few small-scale publishers survived and their business passed into the hands of large commercial concerns such as Bartholomews of Edinburgh and Philips of London who continue to this day. (Ref: Shirley; Tooley; M&B)

$925.00 USD
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1851 John Tallis Antique Map of The Colony of New South Wales, Australia

1851 John Tallis Antique Map of The Colony of New South Wales, Australia

Description:
This original hand coloured steel plate engraved antique map of the Colony of New South Wales with vignettes of Sydnet Cove, Murray River by John Rapkin and published by John Tallis in 1851.

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: - Original
Colors used: - Yellow, green, blue, pink
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 14in x 10 1/2in (355mm x 265mm)
Plate size: - 14in x 10 1/2in (355mm x 265mm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (12mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Very light age toning in margins
Plate area: - None
Verso: - None

$375.00 USD
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