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1662 Joan Blaeu Set of 9 Antique Maps of North America from Atlas Major, 1st Edition

1662 Joan Blaeu Set of 9 Antique Maps of North America from Atlas Major, 1st Edition

  • Title : 1. Extrema Americae....Terra Nova Francia;
    2. Nova Belgica Et Anglia Nova;
    3. Nova Virginiae Tabula;
    4. Virginiae partis australis, et Floridae;
    5. Nova Hispania;
    6. Yucatan...Guatimala;
    7. Insulae Americanae;
    8. Canibales Insulae;
    9. Mappa Aestivarum Insularum Alias Barmudas
  • Size: 24in x 20 1/2in (610mm x 520mm)
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition
  • Date : 1662
  • Ref #:  BlaeuNA 1662

Description:
This is a unique opportunity to acquire a complete set of 9 maps of North America published by Joan Blaeus in the monumental & rare 1st 1662 Latin edition of Atlas Major. The maps cover the geographical detail of Canada, North America, Mexico, The Caribbean & Central America. Please see the background section below for details of each map. All maps have wide original margins & colour on strong sturdy paper.

Joan Blaeus 11 volumes of Atlas Major, is considered by many to be the greatest atlas set ever published. It excels in comprehensiveness, engraving, color, and overall production. The first edition was published in Latin in 1662 and was subsequently published in French, Dutch, German, and Spanish over the next 10 years.
On the 23rd of February 1672, a fire broke out in central Amsterdam, that ended the reign of one of the greatest & most prolific publishers of printed maps and atlases in publishing history. The Blaeu family had reached its zenith 10 years previously, with the publication of its greatest achievement, the Atlas Major or Great Atlas, consisting of 11 volumes, with geographical detail reflecting many of the achievements of the Golden Age of the United Netherlands. Blaeus Atlas Major were the most expensive books printed in the 17th century.

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: - Original
Colors used: - Blue, pink, red, green, yellow
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 24in x 20 1/2in (610mm x 520mm)
Plate size: - Various, pls see below
Margins: - Min 1in (25mm) min

Imperfections:
Margins: - Pls see below
Plate area: - Pls see below
Verso: - Pls see below

Background:
1. Extrema Americae ( Eastern Canada) - Rare only published in Atlas Major. Derived mainly from the Samuel de Champlain Nouvelle France map of 1632, this map reflects the growing financial importance of the waters of New France to Europe.
Plate: 22 1/2in x 17 3/4in.
Condition: Age toning, text show-through & browning to image.

2. Nova Belgica Et Anglia Nova (New England) - NE America, centering on New York and Manhattan from Virginia to the St Lawrence River. This map is noted for the fact that its primary source is the first manuscript figurative map of Adriaen Block from 1614. Indeed it is the first full representation of it in print. It is one of the earliest to name Nieu Amsterdam. Block, a Dutch fur trader, explored the area between Cape Cod and Manhattan, examining the bays and rivers along the way.
Plate: 19 1/2in x 15 1/2in
Condition: Age toning, text show-through & browning to image.

3. Nova Virginiae Tabula (John Smiths Virginia & Chesapeake Bay) This map was printed from a plate engraved by Dirk Grijp from a previous plates by Henricus Hondius.
Plate: 19in x 15in
Condition: Light age toning

4. Virginiae partis australis, et Floridae Virginia, the Carolinas & Georgia.
Plate: 20in x 15in
Condition: Light age toning

5. Nova Hispania et Nova Galicia Western Mexico
Plate: 19 1/2in x 15 1/2in
Condition: Light age toning

6. Yucatan...Guatimala (Yucatan, Central America) Rare only published in Atlas Major.
Plate: 20 1/2in x 16 1/2in
Condition: Light age toning

7. Insulae Americana (GOM, Caribbean)
Plate: 20 1/2in x 15in
Condition: Light age toning

8. Canibales Insulae (Lesser Antilles Islands) Rare, printed only in Atlas Major
Plate: 21in x 16 1/2in
Condition: Age toning

9. Mappa Aestivarum Insularum Alias Barmudas Dictarum Bermuda. Like all 17th century maps of Bermuda this map is based ultimately on the survey made by John Norwood, of the Bermuda Company, in 1618 in the form as published by the English map-maker John Speed in 1627.
Plate: 21in x 16in
Condition: Light age toning

$24,999.00 USD
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1869 Shannon & Rogers Birds Eye View of New York City - New York Manual

1869 Shannon & Rogers Birds Eye View of New York City - New York Manual

  • Title : Designed and Engraved For New York and Environs. The New York Manual 1869
  • Size: 16in x 12in (405mm x 275mm)
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition
  • Date : 1869
  • Ref #:  93208

Description:
This original antique lithograph print of New York City by Joseph Shannon & WC Rogers in 1869 (dated) and was published in the 1869 edition of D T Valentines Manual of the Corporation of the City of New York or Valentines Manual.

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: -
Colors used: -
General color appearance: -
Paper size: - 16in x 12in (405mm x 275mm)
Plate size: - 16in x 12in (405mm x 275mm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (12mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Bottom right margin extended, not affecting the image
Plate area: - Folds as issued
Verso: - Folds as issued.

Background:
Rare view of the island of Manhattan, New York City by W. C. Rogers. The view depicts the entire island of Manhattan with Hoboken as well as parts of Brooklyn and Queens. Important buildings, especially churches are depicted with considerable accuracy. The harbor itself is full of sailing ships.

William C. Rogers 1860 - 1873 (active) a New York based lithographer best known for his engravings issued in conjuction with Joseph Shannons (Valentines) Manual of the Corporation for the City of New York.

Valentine, David Thomas 1801 - 1869
As the Clerk of the Common Council of New York City, Valentine edited and published a series of books on the history and contemporary facts of New York City entitled Manual of the Corporation Of The City of New York. They became know as Valentines Manuals with updates published annually, between 1841 & 1870. Valentine used his manuals to produce some of the rarest and most important maps & views of the city of New York, some of which occasionally appear on the market. His contribution to the historical record of New York city cannot be over stated.

$650.00 USD
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1869 DT Valentine Large Antique Print, View of The Battery, Park, New York City

1869 DT Valentine Large Antique Print, View of The Battery, Park, New York City

Description:
This original antique coloured lithograph print of The Battery (Battery Park) New York City by George Hayward was published in the 1869 edition of D T Valentines Manual of the Corporation of the City of New York or Valentines Manual.

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: - Original
Colors used: - Blue, pink, red, green, yellow
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 13 1/2in x 9 1/2in (345mm x 240mm)
Plate size: - 13 1/2in x 9 1/2in (345mm x 240mm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (12mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Bottom right margin extended, not affecting the image
Plate area: - Folds as issued
Verso: - Folds as issued

Background:
The Battery (formerly known as Battery Park) is a 25-acre public park located at the southern tip of Manhattan Island in New York City facing New York Harbor. It is bounded by Battery Place on the north, State Street on the east, New York Harbor to the south, and the Hudson River to the west. The park contains attractions such as an old fort named Castle Clinton; multiple monuments; and the SeaGlass Carousel. The surrounding area, known as South Ferry, contains multiple ferry terminals, including the Staten Island Ferry\'s Whitehall Terminal as well as boat launches to the Statue of Liberty National Monument.
The park and surrounding area is named for the artillery batteries that were built in the late 17th century to protect the settlement behind them. By the 1820s, the Battery had become an entertainment destination, with the conversion of Castle Clinton into a theatre venue. During the mid-19th century, the modern-day Battery Park was constructed and Castle Clinton was converted into an immigration and customs center. The Battery was commonly known as the landing point for immigrants to New York City until 1890, when the Castle Clinton immigration center was replaced by one on Ellis Island. Castle Clinton then hosted the New York Aquarium from 1896 to 1941.

Valentine, David Thomas 1801 - 1869
As the Clerk of the Common Council of New York City, Valentine edited and published a series of books on the history and contemporary facts of New York City entitled Manual of the Corporation Of The City of New York. They became know as Valentines Manuals with updates published annually, between 1841 & 1870. Valentine used his manuals to produce some of the rarest and most important maps & views of the city of New York, some of which occasionally appear on the market. His contribution to the historical record of New York city cannot be over stated.

$275.00 USD
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1869 DT Valentine Large Antique Map of New York City

1869 DT Valentine Large Antique Map of New York City

  • Title : 1869 DT Valentine Large Antique Map of New York City
  • Size: 39in x 9in (990mm x 230mm)
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition
  • Date : 1869
  • Ref #:  93209

Description:
This large original antique lithograph map of the political divisions of New York city, printed on both sides, by George Hayward was published in the 1869 edition of D T Valentines Manual of the Corporation of the City of New York or Valentines Manual.

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: - Original
Colors used: - Blue, pink, red, green, yellow
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 39in x 9in (990mm x 230mm)
Plate size: - 39in x 9in (990mm x 230mm)
Margins: - Min 1/4in (2mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - Folds as issued
Verso: - Folds as issued

Valentine, David Thomas 1801 - 1869
As the Clerk of the Common Council of New York City, Valentine edited and published a series of books on the history and contemporary facts of New York City entitled Manual of the Corporation Of The City of New York. They became know as Valentines Manuals with updates published annually, between 1841 & 1870. Valentine used his manuals to produce some of the rarest and most important maps & views of the city of New York, some of which occasionally appear on the market. His contribution to the historical record of New York city cannot be over stated.

$325.00 USD
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1746 Homann Large Antique Map of America

1746 Homann Large Antique Map of America

Description:
Large original hand coloured antique map of America by the Homann Heirs, in 1746 (dated) published on the cusp of great change in North America in the mid to late 18th century.

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: - Original & later
Colors used: - Blue, pink, red, green, yellow
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 23in x 20in (595mm x 510mm)
Plate size: - 22in x 19in (500mm x 470mm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (12mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Top left margin & border corner restored
Plate area: - Age toning, centerfold re-joined with light creasing
Verso: - Centerfold re-joined with light creasing

Background:
Homanns second map of America, which reflects the substantial new information obtained since the issuance of the first map of America by the patriarch of the Homann Family, Johann Baptiste Homann. The decorative cartouche includes some very lively visual imagery, including volcanos and a nice alegorical scene representing the people, flora and fauna of America.
The interior of North America benefits from the knowledge obtained by the Jesuits in the Interior parts of North America, especially along the Mississippi River and English and Dutch information along the coast. The French are still the dominant force in the North, the Spanish in the South, immediately prior to the French and Indian War. The Great Lakes are only just now being accurately charted by D\'Anville and later Mitchell. The west coast conforms to the French updates provided by De L\'Isle and progeny. South America is substantially corrected from earlier models.
The NW Coast of America and NW Passage are still unknown, but wishfully shown. Quivira is shown considerably east of its normal location. Quivira was the the legendary land of gold and silver. Francisco de Coronado began his search for Quivira in 1541, but found only Indian Villages. He did however report to the Spanish King that the land was suitable for growing all of the products of Spain. Quivira migrated progressively further North and East, until it disappeared in the late 18th Century. The map seems to be influenced primarily by the highly influential map of America by De L\'Isle first issued in 1700, although the Haas retains some of the great mythical cartographic features in the interior regions.

$475.00 USD
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1772 Gibson & Sayer Large Antique Map of America

1772 Gibson & Sayer Large Antique Map of America

  • Title : A New Map of the Whole Continent of America. Divided Into North and South and West Indies, with a Descriptive Account of the European Possessions, as Settled by the Definitive Treaty of Peace Conducted at Paris Feby 10th 1763...Compiled from Mr D Anville...1772
  • Ref #:  93348
  • Size: 47 1/2in x 42 1/2in (1.20m x 1.08m)
  • Date : 1772
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition

Description: 
This rare, very large, hand coloured, original antique map of North & South America - resulting from the outcome of the French & Indian War in North America & the Paris Treaty of 1763 - by John Gibson, was published by Robert Sayer London, in 1772.
Superbly detailed, impressive in size and beauty of design, with geographical detail based on the American maps by the famous French cartographer Jean Baptiste Bourguignon D'Anville, along with recent Spanish explorations in northern California.
The first edition (1763) and second edition (1772) of this map are extremely scarce and hard to find as many of these were working maps and would have been put to use by both the Military and Government. Other editions with revisions were published in 1777, 1783, 1786 & 1794 which emphasised the post revolutionary break up of North America, without the L&R text boxes. 
The Treaty of Paris was signed between Britain, France, and Spain, reshaping the map of North America and ending the colonial phase of the Seven Years' War. France, defeated in the New World and frustrated in its war against Prussia, lost all claims to Canada and gave Louisiana to Spain, while Britain received Spanish Florida, Upper Canada, and various French holdings overseas. France's adventure in India also came to an end, ensuring the colonial supremacy of Britain in coming decades. Five days after the Treaty of Paris, the Treaty of Hubertusburg was signed, acknowledging Prussia's right to the Polish province of Silesia, a claim that seven years earlier had started the war. 

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy & stable
Paper color: - White
Age of map color: - Original & later  
Colors used: - Yellow, green, red  
General color appearance: - Authentic   
Paper size: - 47 1/2in x 42 1/2in (1.20m x 1.08m)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (12mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - Folds & joins as issued
Verso: - Light age toning

Background: This is John Gibson's celebrated map of the New World, showing the European Possessions and the recently recognized boundaries of North & South as decreed by the 1763 Treaty of Paris. The text box on the left side of the map outlines some of the articles of the Paris Treaty of 1763. The text box on the right hand side shows the possessions of each European Power in North & South America. 
The map is one of the earliest obtainable English language wall maps of  Continental America.  It was periodically updated during the later part of the 18th Century, first to include the information and boundaries established at the conclusion of the French and Indian War in 1763, and later, after the American Revolution and the establishment of the United States.
The map provides a stark contrast between the known and unknown regions, with the eastern parts of North America quite well understood, whereas the mythical River of the West is still shown, seeking a continuous water course from the Atlantic to the Pacific.
The map also includes an excellent treatment of South America at the end of the Spanish Colonial empire, based in part on the recently published Cruz Cano y Olmedilla map of South America (Mapa Geográfico De America Meridional . . .).
Although the United States extends to the Mississippi, the province of Quebec appears to encroach on U.S. territory around the Great Lakes. Details of north-western North America are just beginning to emerge. The map shows a peninsular California, a Chinese colony ("Fou Sang") in British Columbia, and two possible locations for a "River of the West" (one with its source at Pike's lake; the other, further north at Lake Winnipeg).
The South America sheet includes an inset map of northern North America to Baffin's Bay, showing Greenland as part of the North American mainland.
The beautiful title cartouche is a baroque fantasy with New World flora, both temperate and tropical, beaver, alligator, and an Indian chieftain's headdress. (Ref: M&B; Tooley)

John Gibson 1750 - 1792
An English cartographer, geographer, draughtsman and engraver. Recognized as an important late eighteenth-century British cartographer, a contemporary of Jacques-Nicolas Bellin and a skilled engraver. Spent most of his life in prison because of several debts, however he produced thousands of maps, including large scale maps of America along with his best known work in 1758 called the pocket atlas Atlas Minimus.
He also worked for the Gentleman's Magazine for which engraved different decorative maps who also published his own work in The Universal Magazine of Knowledge and Pleasure, The Universal Museum and The Universal Traveller.

 

$3,750.00 USD
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1775 Thomas Jefferys Antique Map North America & Colonial States, Pre Revolution

1775 Thomas Jefferys Antique Map North America & Colonial States, Pre Revolution

  • Title : North America from the French of Mr. D Anville Improved with the English Surveys made Since the Peace NB. The Boundaries of the Provinces since the conquest of Canada are laid down as settled by the King in Council..London Printed for Robt. Sayer & J Bennett Map & Printseller, No 53 Fleet Street as the act directs 10 June 1775
  • Size: 20 1/2in x 18 1/2in (510mm x 470mm)
  • Condition: (A) Very Good Condition
  • Date : 1775
  • Ref #:  93045

Description:
This very important scarce original copper-plate engraved antique map of North America & the colonial States, is sectioned and laid down on linen as issued. The map by Thomas Jefferys - after JB D Anville, was engraved in 1775 - dated at the foot of the map - and was published by Robert Sayer and John Bennett, London.
Jean Baptiste Bourguignon d Anville was the successor to Guillaume De l Isle and maintained the rigorous standard for accuracy that De l Isle had established. D Anville was the last French mapmaker to establish an international reputation, superior to all his contemporaries, with respect shown by the English and other cartographers and publishers during an era when England & France were often at conflict with one another.

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: - Original
Colors used: - Yellow, green, pink
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 20 1/2in x 18 1/2in (510mm x 470mm)
Plate size: - 20 1/2in x 18 1/2in (510mm x 470mm)
Margins: - Min 0in (0mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Bottom right margin cropped to border
Plate area: - Spotting
Verso: - Linen strong and robust, spotting

Background: 
This third state is the second edition of the map issued after the conclusion of the French and Indian War. The map shows the Colonies on the eve of the American Revolutionary War. A note in the title cartouche states that the Boundaries of the Provinces since the conquest of Canada are laid down as settled by the King in Council. This note appears in the second state as well. The map shows the various colonial claims running to the Mississippi, but the colourist has conservatively limited the borders to the Appalachian Mountains. The boundary between New England and Virginia as established by Charter in 1609 is shown, although the date is omitted.
The map is rich with details west of the Appalachians, including Indian Tribes, early French and English forts and other contemporary information on the eve of the revolution. Main is named, but [New] Hampshire takes up all of Vermont. Massachusetts Bay and Delaware Bay are named, as are East and West Florida. The region west of the Mississippi is dominated by Spanish Louisiana Territory, with the lands between the Mississippi and the Appalachians controlled by Indian Tribes. A nice wide margin example of this map of the Colonies, which was included in Jefferys American Atlas prior to and during the American Revolutionary War.

$1,750.00 USD
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1755 Thomas Jefferys Antique English Edition Map The Colonial American Colonies

1755 Thomas Jefferys Antique English Edition Map The Colonial American Colonies

  • Title : North America from the French of Mr. D Anville Improved with the Back Settlements of Virginia and Course of Ohio Illustrated with Geographical and Historical Remarks . . . Pub Thos. Jefferys..May 1755 . . .
  • Size: 22in x 19in (500mm x 465mm)
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition
  • Date : 1755
  • Ref #:  93343

Description:
A rare original 1st English edition of Thomas Jefferys map of the American Colonies, published in 1755 (dated) , after the French cartographer J B D Anville. This is one of the few maps published on North America from the British perspective at the time, as opposed to the French and German, published by D Anville and Homann.
This very important, scarce copper-plate engraved map was issued in the 1st 1755 edition of William Douglass A Summary Historical and Political of the first planting Progressive Improvements and Present State of the British Settlements in North America. 
The map is in excellent condition on clean sturdy paper, folds as issued and original outline colouring. A small tear has been professionally repaired to the right side of the map, no loss.

The map is extremely detailed particularly in the Back Settlements with the locations of forts, Indian villages, tribal territory, and mines. Earl Granvilles Property is shown extending to the Mississippi River. Various treaty boundaries and charters are shown. Below the large, decorative title cartouche is a lengthy explanation describing the English Title to their Settlements on the Continent and at upper left is a notation concerning the French Incroachments.

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: - Original
Colors used: - Yellow, green, blue, pink
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 22in x 19in (500mm x 465mm)
Plate size: - 20 1/2in x 18 1/2in (510mm x 470mm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (12mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Small repair to right margin into image, no loss
Plate area: - Folds as issued
Verso: - Light soiling

Background: 
Jefferys and the Mapping of North America
The English had made manuscript maps, charts, and surveys since their earliest settlements in Virginia and New England, but few of these cartographic productions were ever printed. Most, like John Smiths New England (1616), appeared as part of larger geographical texts; there were only a very few separately published maps, such as those printed on broadsides by William Penn to promote his colony. The steady expansion of settlement and of the Atlantic trade led to a sufficient demand to warrant the publication of charts (notably in the English Pilot, The Fourth Book of 1689) and increasingly specialized chorographic maps. This expansion paralleled the general rise of English print culture after Parliament allowed censorship to lapse in 1695.
The real spurt in demand for maps of the American colonies came only after 1748 and the realization that the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelles maintenance of the Anglo-French status quo in North America was only temporary. A more definitive resolution to the conflicting imperial claims was clearly looming and interest in the colonies climbed dramatically. At the same time, the existing maps of the American colonies lacked detail. The cartographic image of New England, for example, might be typified by the small-scale map of John Speed (1676) and the anonymous map in Cotton Mathers Magnalia Christi Americana (Mather 1702). There was a definite demand for large, highly detailed maps of all parts of the colonies.
Jefferys moved to take advantage of the increasing demand for maps of North America. Indeed, two of his maps both compiled by John Green are among the many highly significant maps of the colonies which first appeared in 1755. Once war was officially declared with France in 1756, Jefferys output of North American maps increased dramatically. Jefferys took a highly partisan line against the French and their territorial claims in North America. It is unnecessary to argue that he was being paid by the government to produce his cartographic and textual polemics; nor was he cynically meeting a demand created by the political tenor of the day. Rather, Jefferys sentiments were part of that political tenor. There were few, if any, dissenters who argued that the French policy of encircling and encroaching on the English colonies in North America did not pose a substantial threat.
First, Jefferys used existing French maps of North America. The critical geography of Guillaume de lIsle (1675-1726) and his successors Jean Nicolas Bellin (1693-1772), Jean Baptiste dAnville (1697-1782), and Philippe Buache (1700-1773) had coincided with the great amount of information generated by the French explorations along the interior waterways of North America to produce a number of large, detailed, and highly reputable maps of the continent. Jefferys sold many of these maps; he tipped advertisements announcing the availability at his shop of new maps from Paris into two works published in. More importantly, Jefferys also translated the French maps into English and published them anew. He did not pass off these copies as his own work. Instead, he prominently displayed the identities of their reputable authors, thereby stressing the maps accuracy and quality. An example of these maps is Jefferys North America From the French of Mr D Anville (London, May 1755), which was used as the frontispiece to the first (1755) London edition of Douglass (1749-52).
Jefferys did not restrict himself to stealing French maps. His second source of materials for North America were maps already printed either in the colonies, which did not enjoy copyright protection, or even other works printed in London. For example, in 1755, Jefferys directly pirated George Washingtons journal and map of his expedition to the Ohio in 1753.
Third, Jefferys followed the simple expedient of buying existing plates from other cartographers. Thomas Kitchin had in 1756, for example, pirated Lewis Evans General Map of the Middle British Colonies, in America (Philadelphia, 1755); Jefferys subsequently acquired this plate and reissued under his own name in 1758, against the opposition of Evans friend, Thomas Pownall. Again, Jefferys or perhaps more properly Sayer bought the plates of James Cooks surveys of Newfoundland, originally published at Cooks own cost and under his own imprint, and reprinted them in 1769 as part of a large collection of charts of the Canadian maritimes (Jefferys 1769) Those other charts reflect Jefferys other sources.
The fourth, and perhaps largest, set of source materials for Jefferys maps of North America were original manuscripts produced in the colonies and sent back to London. Some were sent back to London specifically to be engraved; Harley quotes a colonial advertisement in 1764 for a map that was explicitly to be engraved in London by Jefferys. Most of this category of maps, however, were published by Jefferys as a contractor to different government agencies. For example, the Board of Trade and Plantations in 1750 ordered the colonies to make maps of their territories (in order to get information to be used by John Mitchell for making his 1755 map of North America); Virginia directed Joshua Fry and Peter Jefferson to make such a map, which they completed in 1751 and sent back to London; ultimately, the board passed it on to Jefferys to be published and the map eventually appeared in print, probably in 1754. Harley also quotes the boards records with respect to Jefferys printing in 1760 of a map of Halifax harbour.
Jefferys fifth source of publishable maps and pamphlets was in-house: he employed geographers to compile new maps and books which he could then publish. We know today of the identity of only one of these employees, John Green. Green seems to have gone to work for Jefferys at about the same time as Jefferys moved to Charing Cross; we know that he produced three, or perhaps four, maps and three books which appeared under Jefferys imprint; he also planned and perhaps constructed other maps which did not appear in print. After Green committed suicide in 1757, Jefferys apparently employed a new geographer, who wrote the Natural and Civil History of the French Dominions (Jefferys 1760). Reviewers of this work did not think it as perfect as it might have been, which Harley has interpreted as indicating the lesser qualities of Greens replacement. It might be thought that Jefferys employment of critical geographers was part of the sort of ambitious, larger scheme in which Jefferys would later engage when he mapped several English counties. The similarity of the titles of the Fry and Jefferson map (1754) and of the Jefferys-Green map of New England (1755) is suggestive in this regard. Telling against such a supposition is the lack of critical concern displayed by Jefferys in the rest of his cartographic business. Green (1753) had concluded, for example, that the famed voyage by Admiral de Fonte to the northern Pacific was in fact completely fictitious, yet Jefferys continued to publish maps showing the spurious geography of North-western America derived from that fiction . Jefferys hiring of Green and his anonymous successor was clearly a business investment. The geographers wages constituted an extra cost, but in return Jefferys got a quality product that would only enhance his reputation. From the sorts of maps which we know Green to have worked on, but which were never completed, it does not seem that Jefferys sought to have new maps created so as to provide complete cartographic coverage across all the English territories in North America. Jefferys did not have a larger agenda, such as the advancement of geographical knowledge, other than the generation of profit.

Jean Baptiste Bourguignon d Anville was the successor to Guillaume De l Isle and maintained the rigorous standard for accuracy that De l Isle had established. D Anville was the last French mapmaker to establish an international reputation, superior to all his contemporaries, with respect shown by the English and other cartographers and publishers during an era when England & France were often at conflict with one another.

$2,499.00 USD
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1852 Howard Stansbury Large Antique Map Forth Leavenworth, KS to Salt Lake, Utah

1852 Howard Stansbury Large Antique Map Forth Leavenworth, KS to Salt Lake, Utah

  • Title : Map of a reconnaissance between Fort Leavenworth on the Missouri River, and the Great Salt Lake in the territory of Utah / made in 1849 and 1850 under the orders of Col. J.J. Abert, Chief of the Topographical Bureau, by Capt. Howard Stansbury of the Corps of Topographical Engineers, aided by Lieut. J.W. Gunnison, Corps Topographical Engineers, and Albert Carrington ; drawn by Lieut. Gunnison and Charles Preuss
  • Size: 70in x 30in (1.78m x 760mm)
  • Condition: (A) Very Good Condition
  • Date : 1852
  • Ref #:  93342

Description:

This large original antique lithograph map from Fort Leavenworth, Kansas to the Great Salt Lake, Utah by Howard Stansbury, in 1849-50, is one of the earliest concise and complete survey of the 900+ miles across unknown and hostile Indian territory. This is a milestone of American cartography showing detail of the territories of Nebraska, Colorado and Utah.
This large map along with another, of The Great Salt Lake in Utah, was drawn by Henry Gunnison & Charles and published by the publishing house Ackermann, New York City in 1852.
Stansbury was commissioned by Congress to survey the Great Salt Lake in the Utah Valley in 1849. Heading west using old known tracks and local knowledge, Stansbury along with his expedition, completed the task in 2 years presenting their report, along with two very large maps, to Congress in 1852.

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: - Original
Colors used: - Blue
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 70in x 30in (1.78m x 760mm)
Plate size: - 70in x 30in (1.78m x 760mm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (12mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - Folds as issued, small repair along a couple of folds, slight loss, light age toning
Verso: - Re-enforced along folds with transparent archival tape

Background: 
In 1849 Stansbury was ordered to travel from Fort Leavenworth, Kansas to survey the Great Salt Lake in Utah, evaluate emigration trails along the way, especially the Oregon and Mormon trails and to scout for possible locations for a transcontinental railroad. The expedition consisted of 18 men including his second in command Lieutenant John Williams Gunnison. Over the following two years, the expedition explored the Great Salt Lake, Utah Lake and the Cache Valley of northern Utah all the way to Fort Hall in southern Idaho. Upon first arriving in Utah the Mormon leaders were worried that the expedition was part of an effort by the U.S government to oust the Mormon settlers. Stansbury held a meeting with Brigham Young where he assured the leader that the expedition was purely a scientific one. Young responded by assigning his personal secretary Albert Carrington to assist the expedition. Upon completing the mission in Utah, the expedition started back east to Leavenworth. Rather than follow the standard Oregon Trail route from Fort Bridger over South Pass through the Sweetwater River valley, Stansbury wanted to scout a more direct route east. Following the advice of Jim Bridger and local trappers and traders the expedition followed the Blacks Fork River east, crossed the Green River near the present day town of Green River, Wyoming and proceeded east along the Bitter Creek valley, crossing the Red Desert, and skirting the northern side of Elk Mountain across the Laramie Plains. They passed over the Laramie Mountains and made their way to Fort Laramie where they struck the Oregon Trail heading east. Stansbury's seminal 1852 map of the Great Salt Lake region in Utah is considered to be the first accurate survey of the Great Basin as well as a cornerstone achievement in the mapping of the American West. The first westerner to visit the Great Basin was most likely Silvestre Vélez de Escalante in the 1776, however, Escalante, who visited Utah Lake to the south, never truly laid eyes on Great Salt Lake. That honor would fall to unnamed trappers and mountain men travelling the region

Stansbury, Howard 1806 - 1863
Stansbury was an important surveyor, cartographer, and explorer who did his most important work in Utah during the middle part of the 19th century. Born in New York City, Stansbury trained to be a Civil Engineer. Shorty after getting married to Helen Moody of Detroit in 1827, Stansbury took a position with the United States Topographical Bureau. Under that organization he surveyed the James River in 1836, and the Illinois and Kaskaskia Rivers in 1837. In 1838, he oversaw the construction of a road from Milwaukee to the Mississippi River. Later in 1838, when the U.S Corps of Topographical Engineers was created, he joined as a first Lieutenant. With the Topographical Engineers he surveyed the Great Lakes, the harbor of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, and constructed Florida\\\'s Carysfort Reef Lighthouse. During the Mexican-American War he constructed fortification in the Dry Tortugas at the westernmost point on the Florida Keys. Upon achieving the rank of Captain, Stansbury received a commissioned to head a survey of the Great Basin that would ultimately become the crowning achievement of his career. His assignment was to survey the emigrant trails to California, including the Oregon Trail, as well as the Great Salt Lake, and report on the status of the growing Mormon Community in Salt Lake City. Working with J. W. Gunnison and Alfred Carrington, a Mormon scout, Stansbury produced a masterful survey of the region that had a lasting effect not only on the development of the Great Basin, but on the development of the west in general. Upon completion of his survey, Stansbury set out on the road to Washington, completing another important survey in the process. On the way, he fell off his horse, taking an injury from which he never fully recovered. Following the presentation of his report to Congress, Stansbury was charged with additional survey work around the Great Lakes. Upon the outbreak of the American Civil War, he was assigned to recruitment duties in Ohio and later Wisconsin. Shortly after starting work at this post he suffered an abrupt heart attack and passed away. He is buried in St. Paul, Minnesota.

$750.00 USD
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1852 Howard Stansbury Large 1st Antique Map The Great Salt Lake & City, Utah

1852 Howard Stansbury Large 1st Antique Map The Great Salt Lake & City, Utah

  • Title : Map of the Great Salt Lake And Adjacent Country in the Territory Of Utah. Surveyed in 1849 and 1850, under the orders of Col. J.J. Abert ... by Capt. Howard Stansbury ... aided by Lieut. J.W. Gunnison ... and Albert Carrington. Drawn By Lieut. Gunnison And Charles Preuss. Ackerman Lith. 379 Broadway N.Y.
  • Size: 45 1/2in x 32in (1.155mm x 815mm)
  • Condition: (A) Very Good Condition
  • Date : 1852
  • Ref #:  93341 

Description:
This large original antique lithograph map of the Great Salt Lake of Utah by Howard Stansbury, in 1849-50, is considered to be the first concise and complete survey of the Great Basin and a cartographical milestone of American cartography. This large map along with another, of the route taken by the expedition from Fort Leavenworth to the Great Salt Lake, was drawn by Henry Gunnison & Charles and published by the publishing house Ackermann, New York City in 1852.
Stansbury was commissioned by Congress to survey the Great Salt Lake in the Utah Valley in 1849. Heading west using old known tracks and local knowledge, Stansbury along with his expedition, completed the task in 2 years presenting their report, along with two very large maps, to Congress in 1852.
The map stretches from the Bear River in the north to Mount Nebo in the south, and from the Rocky Mountains in the west to the Great Plains in the east, The map resulted from 2 years of hard work, luck and scientific tenacity, containing significant and first hand detail, identifying springs, rivers, passes, American Indian settlements, canals, and much more. His work identified detail of the local inhabitants and is one of the earliest maps to include a plan of Salt Lake City.
Stansbury attempts to provide useful travelling detail that is included in the map from both directions, east & west and was instrumental in helping the early settlers coming from both directions
.......This desert consists of clay and sand impregnated with salt. When wet, it has the consistency of mortar. Lightly loaded wagons can pass between Spring Valley and Pilot Peak in the driest part of the season. Forage and water must be carried for cattle, and the journey begun in the P. M. and continued through the night. Distance between springs 70 ms.....
Along with depth soundings of the lake, many of the islands are named after people of that original expedition, Stansbury, Carrington, Gunnison & Fremont all hand island named after them.
In his study of American exploration, Carl Wheat (1892-1966) devotes considerable attention to this map,
........Obviously a major production...an illuminating map of Great Salt Lake, Utah Lake, their respective valleys, and a portion of ‘Youab\' (Juab) Valley to the south.... This map permanently established the cartography and many place names of north-western Utah.... One of its most attractive features is that it gives the Indian as well as the Mormon names of the various creeks draining from the mountains. For Great Salt Lake itself the map was definitive, of course, permanent names being given to all the islands and shoreline features.... Scientific cartography for the Territory of Utah may be said to date from the appearance of this map......

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: - Original
Colors used: - Blue
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 45 1/2in x 32in (1.155mm x 815mm)
Plate size: - 45 1/2in x 32in (1.155mm x 815mm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (12mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - Folds as issued, small repair along a couple of folds, light age toning
Verso: - Re-enforced along folds with transparent archival tape

Background: 
In 1849 Stansbury was ordered to travel from Fort Leavenworth, Kansas to survey the Great Salt Lake in Utah, evaluate emigration trails along the way, especially the Oregon and Mormon trails and to scout for possible locations for a transcontinental railroad. The expedition consisted of 18 men including his second in command Lieutenant John Williams Gunnison. Over the following two years, the expedition explored the Great Salt Lake, Utah Lake and the Cache Valley of northern Utah all the way to Fort Hall in southern Idaho. Upon first arriving in Utah the Mormon leaders were worried that the expedition was part of an effort by the U.S government to oust the Mormon settlers. Stansbury held a meeting with Brigham Young where he assured the leader that the expedition was purely a scientific one. Young responded by assigning his personal secretary Albert Carrington to assist the expedition. Upon completing the mission in Utah, the expedition started back east to Leavenworth. Rather than follow the standard Oregon Trail route from Fort Bridger over South Pass through the Sweetwater River valley, Stansbury wanted to scout a more direct route east. Following the advice of Jim Bridger and local trappers and traders the expedition followed the Blacks Fork River east, crossed the Green River near the present day town of Green River, Wyoming and proceeded east along the Bitter Creek valley, crossing the Red Desert, and skirting the northern side of Elk Mountain across the Laramie Plains. They passed over the Laramie Mountains and made their way to Fort Laramie where they struck the Oregon Trail heading east. Stansbury's seminal 1852 map of the Great Salt Lake region in Utah is considered to be the first accurate survey of the Great Basin as well as a cornerstone achievement in the mapping of the American West. The first westerner to visit the Great Basin was most likely Silvestre Vélez de Escalante in the 1776, however, Escalante, who visited Utah Lake to the south, never truly laid eyes on Great Salt Lake. That honor would fall to unnamed trappers and mountain men travelling the region

Stansbury, Howard 1806 - 1863
Stansbury was an important surveyor, cartographer, and explorer who did his most important work in Utah during the middle part of the 19th century. Born in New York City, Stansbury trained to be a Civil Engineer. Shorty after getting married to Helen Moody of Detroit in 1827, Stansbury took a position with the United States Topographical Bureau. Under that organization he surveyed the James River in 1836, and the Illinois and Kaskaskia Rivers in 1837. In 1838, he oversaw the construction of a road from Milwaukee to the Mississippi River. Later in 1838, when the U.S Corps of Topographical Engineers was created, he joined as a first Lieutenant. With the Topographical Engineers he surveyed the Great Lakes, the harbor of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, and constructed Florida\\\'s Carysfort Reef Lighthouse. During the Mexican-American War he constructed fortification in the Dry Tortugas at the westernmost point on the Florida Keys. Upon achieving the rank of Captain, Stansbury received a commissioned to head a survey of the Great Basin that would ultimately become the crowning achievement of his career. His assignment was to survey the emigrant trails to California, including the Oregon Trail, as well as the Great Salt Lake, and report on the status of the growing Mormon Community in Salt Lake City. Working with J. W. Gunnison and Alfred Carrington, a Mormon scout, Stansbury produced a masterful survey of the region that had a lasting effect not only on the development of the Great Basin, but on the development of the west in general. Upon completion of his survey, Stansbury set out on the road to Washington, completing another important survey in the process. On the way, he fell off his horse, taking an injury from which he never fully recovered. Following the presentation of his report to Congress, Stansbury was charged with additional survey work around the Great Lakes. Upon the outbreak of the American Civil War, he was assigned to recruitment duties in Ohio and later Wisconsin. Shortly after starting work at this post he suffered an abrupt heart attack and passed away. He is buried in St. Paul, Minnesota.

$750.00 USD
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1722 Claude Delisle Large True 1st Edition Antique Map of America

1722 Claude Delisle Large True 1st Edition Antique Map of America

  • Title : 1722 Claude Delisle Large 1st Edition Antique Map of America
  • Size: 26 1/2in x 20 1/2in (675mm x 520mm)
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition
  • Date : 1722
  • Ref #:  93338

Description:
This large original copper plate engraved hand coloured antique, true first edition, map of America was published by Claude de L Isle (Delisle) in 1722.
Even though this map was published for the better part of the 18th century, the date 1722 in the cartouche, was not updated or removed in most instances. This makes identification of the true 1st editions complicated, but not impossible. The design of the cartouche itself is the defining evidence. I have included an image of the 4 different cartouche designs, from Tooleys The Mapping of America that define the different editions. This map is the first edition, state 2, illustrated in the image as No.2.

This 1st edition is a landmark map and one of the most important maps of America published in the early 18th century. So detailed was it, for its day, that it was copied many times over the next 100 years.

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: - Original
Colors used: - Yellow, Green, pink
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 26 1/2in x 20 1/2in (675mm x 520mm)
Plate size: - 24 1/2in x 19 1/2in (620mm x 495mm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (12mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Light age toning
Plate area: - Light age toning
Verso: - Light age toning

Background: 
Detailed map of America, showing a blank coastline above Cap Blanc and the mythical entry of D\'Aguilar. The map shows tremendous detail throughout. Nice detail in California and the Southwest. The course of the Mississippi si pushed considerably west of its true location, but the Missouri River is shown in a remarkably accurate fashion, with headwaters in the Northern Rocky Mountains. The map is rich with Indian and other early American details. Decorative cartouche, compass rose and extensive notes throughout the map. First edition, 2nd State of the map. A bit of minor soiling, some lifting at the centerfold near the bottom of the map and a bit of wear at the lower centerfold, but generally a fine dark impression of this important early map.

$2,250.00 USD
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1646 Jan Jansson Large Antique Map The Island of Bermuda

1646 Jan Jansson Large Antique Map The Island of Bermuda

  • Title : Mappa Aestivarum Insularum, alias Barmudas Dictarum ... Accurate Descripta
  • Date : 1646
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition
  • Ref:  93340
  • Size: 23 1/2in x 20in (595mm x 510mm)  

Description: 
This fine beautifully hand coloured original antique map of the Island of Bermuda by Jan Jansson was published in the 1646 Latin of Mercators Atlas by Henricus Hondius & Janson. One of the best examples of this map we have had in some time with original hand colouring, original margins heavy paper and a heavy impression, beautiful map.
A much sought after map of Bermuda, with decorative cartouche, compass rose with the Island divided into lots and tribes, listed at the base of the map. 

Condition Report
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - off white
Age of map color: - Original
Colors used: - Red, yellow, green
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 23 1/2in x 20in (595mm x 510mm)
Plate size: - 20 1/2in x 15 3/4in (520mm x 400mm)
Margins: - Min 1in (25mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Light age toning
Plate area: - Light age toning
Verso: - Light age toning

Background:
Like all 17th century maps of Bermuda this map is based ultimately on the survey made by John Norwood of the Bermuda Company in 1618 in the form as published by the English map-maker John Speed in 1627. Although discovered in 1515 by Spaniard Juan de Bermudez, after whom the island is supposedly named, it was the shipwreck of a party of Virginia colonists in 1610 led by Sir George Somers that gave Bermuda its first known inhabitants. The Latin title reflects this fact, for Aestivarum Insularum  means summers (or Somers) Islands. The experience of Somers and his men inspired William Shakespeare, who dispatched Ariel to "fetch dew from the still-vext Bermoothes" and populated the islands with the cast of The Tempest.

The place names and the list of Proprietors given below the map itself all recall the original members of the Bermuda Company, the latter being listed as eight tribes (or parishes). In 1610, the Virginia Company, in a True Declaration of the Estate of the Colonie of Virginia, said of Bermuda: These Islands of Bermudos, have evere beene accounted as an inchaunted pile of rocks, and a desert inhabitation for Divels; but all the Faities of the rockes were but flocks of Birds, and all the Divels that haunted the woods, were but heards of Swine. In the upper left-hand and right-hand corners of the map appear the adjacent coasts of the North American colonies of Virginia and New England with, just below the cartouche a tiny outline of Bermuda itself, intended to show its correct proportion and position against the mainland.(Ref Tooley M&B)

$2,250.00 USD
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1784 Homann & Gussefeld Large Antique Map of the Newly Independent United States of America

1784 Homann & Gussefeld Large Antique Map of the Newly Independent United States of America

  • TitleCharte uber die XIII vereinigte Staaten von Nord-Amerika...F L Guffefeld...A 1784 
  • Ref #:  82031
  • Size: 25in x 21in (635mm x 535mm)
  • Date : 1784
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition

Description: 
This large important & scarce fine beautifully hand coloured original antique map of the United States just after the War of Independence by Franz Ludwig Gussefeld (1744 – 1807) in 1784 - dated - was published by the famous German cartography firm of The Homann Heirs.
Also known as the Stetson map, after the Stetson engraved in the title cartouche, this is one of the earliest maps to recognised the newly independent United States after the revolutionary war of Independence.

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - off white
Age of map color: - Original
Colors used: - Yellow, green, blue, pink
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: -  25in x 21in (635mm x 535mm)
Plate size: - 23 1/2in x 18 1/4in (595mm x 465mm)
Margins: - Min 1in (25mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - None
Verso: - None

Background: An early and large map of the newly formed United States  delineating all 13 states. The map extends west past the Mississippi River and north to the southern tip of Hudson Bay. The southern states are shown with their western boundaries on the Mississippi River, although the coloring shows only regions east of the Appalachians as being organized. As with many German maps of the period, there are some incorrect state boundaries; Vermont is shown as part of New Hampshire, and Maryland includes much of northern Virginia. A list of the principal German communities in New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania are listed. The interior regions are shown with considerable topographical detail, locating numerous Indian tribes, topography, and watershed. The garland-style title cartouche is topped with a hat and crossed swords. 
Each state is colored in a contrasting pastel and the states in the northern part are named by way of a lettered key given just below the attractive title cartouche. The treatment of the lands to the west of the Appalachian Mountains and up to the Mississippi River is quite interesting. This area is indicated as lands that came to the United States by the Treaty of 1783.French title outside top neat-line: Les XIII Etats Unis de l' Amerique Septentrionale. 

Franz Ludwig Gussefeld (1744 –1807) was a German cartographer noted for his highly accurate & detailed maps, most of which were published by Homannsche Erben (Homann Heirs) firm in Nuremberg, Germany in the 18th century.
Gussefeld was born in Osterberg and at an early age had an interest in drawing and creating maps. His first map of the German state of Brandenburg was published in 1773 and was the first of over a 100 of his maps published by the Homann firm. The high quality of Gussefeld's work is credited with saving the Homann Heirs firm, a famous publishing house that had come under financial difficulties after the death of the founder JB Homann.
Gussefeld died of pulmonary edema in Weimar in 1807. (Ref: Tooley; M&B)

$2,250.00 USD
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1746 J B D Anville Large Antique Map of North America

1746 J B D Anville Large Antique Map of North America

  • Title : Amerique Septentrionale Publiee sous les Auspices de Monseigneur le Duc d 'Orleans.. Par Le Snr. D Anville MDCCXLVI
  • Date : 1746
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition
  • Ref:  93207
  • Size: 42 1/2in x 37in (1.08m x 940mm)

Description:
This spectacular large original copper plate engraved antique map of North America by Jean-Baptiste Bourguinon D Anville was in 1746 - dated - and was published in his elphant folio Atlas Generale.

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: - Original & later
Colors used: - Blue, pink, red, green, yellow
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 42 1/2in x 37in (1.08m x 940mm)
Plate size: - 34 1/2in x 33 1/2in (875m x 850mm)
Margins: - Min 2in (50mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Light spotting in margins
Plate area: - Folds as issued
Verso: - Folds as issued

Background: 
To illustrate the cartography of the mid eighteenth century, especially American cartography, a D Anville map is essential. He dominated not only the French but all contemporary European cartography. He was foremost to leave blank spaces in his maps where knowledge was insufficient. His representation of the great lakes is superior to that of his contemporary John Mitchell who was responsible for publishing one of the most famous mid 18th century maps A Map of the British and French Dominions in North America on 8 sheets London in 1755. It was the standard map of North America up until the end of the century.
Eusebio Francisco Kinos discoveries of California in the beginning of the 18th century have now made full impact. D Anvilles map shows California as a peninsula and the Colorado and Gila Rivers are more accurately located. Note that the western part of the Gila River is named the Rio Grande, the Santa Cruz River is called Sta. Maria, and the San Pedro River is Terenate. (Ref: Tooley, Printed maps of America, 104; The Mapping of America 316)

$1,750.00 USD
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1639 Henricus Hondius Antique 1st Edition Map of North America California Island

1639 Henricus Hondius Antique 1st Edition Map of North America California Island

Description:
This magnificent original copper-plate engraved antique rare 1st state map of North America, with California as an Island, by Henricus Hondius was published in the 1639 French edition.
There were only 3 publications of this map by Hondius in the 1630s & 40s with Jan Jansson replacing the map with his signature in 1641.

The now seldom seen first state of an important, early Dutch map of North America. It one of the first Dutch atlas maps to show California as an island, preceded only by the Hondius Hondius world map of 1633. A note on the map recounting the story of the origin of the California-as-an-island refers to a Dutch captain who obtained a map of California depicted as an island from a captured Spanish ship. The note even provides the dimensions of the island. The Hondius map was an important conduit for bringing the island myth into the cartographic mainstream. Further, Tooley noted the map was also first attempt in Holland to add lakes connected to the St. Lawrence. One of these lakes on the map is in the approximate shape and position of Lake Ontario.
This was also one of a very few, early Dutch maps specifically of North America (as opposed to the entire Western Hemisphere). Aside from the rare De Jode map of 1593, this is the only folio-sized map of North America produced during the entire Dutch Golden Age.

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Light and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: - Original
Colors used: - Blue, pink, red, green, yellow
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 23in x 20in (595mm x 510mm)
Plate size: - 22in x 19in (500mm x 470mm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (12mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Top margin expended from plate-mark
Plate area: - None
Verso: - None

Background: 
Henricus Hondius beautifully engraved map of North America had significant influence in perpetuating the theory of California as an island. This was of the influence of his powerful Dutch publishing house with no earlier maps representing California as an island maps having such a wide audience. The 1630s were a decade of constant development in the houses of Blaeu, Hondius & Jansson. It is interesting to note that Blaeu never produced a single sheet map of North America; producing a map of just the whole American continent, first produced in 1617. Also during this decade Joannes Janssonius became an active partner of Hondius, and although this map does not bear his mark, it is believe it was his creation, based on the very similar South American, at the same time, displaying his name.
Cartographically this map is a careful composition of many different sources. The depiction and nomenclature of the west, along with that of California, derive directly from the Henry Briggs The North Part of America, 1625. A legend placed strategically over the north-west coastline offers the opportunity to discontinue a coastline least understood. An unnamed lake still feeds a Rio del Norto flowing incorrectly south-west into what should be the headwaters of the Gulf of California. On the east bank of this river is Real de Nueua Mexico, or Santa Fe. The Gulf of Mexico and the Florida peninsula originate from the Hessel Gerritsz chart of c.1631.
The east coast, however, is harder to define; the south-east appears to be quite generic in form. It is the area north of here that does not appear to be from a particular source. The Chesapeake Bay area is defined in about as much detail as the scale and style of the map will allow, Iames Towne being clearly identified. NOVUM BELGIUM is unlike any other before it, the area between the Zuitt Reuier (Delaware River) and the Noort R (Hudson River) being greatly elongated on a north-east to south-west axis. New Amsterdam is curiously not designated although Fort Orange is present. For New England just a select few names have been chosen from John Smiths map of the area, 1616. The Gulf of St. Lawrence appears to follow de Laet more than Champlain. The latter is used to depict a single great Lake; however, its name, Lac des Iroquois, is borrowed from one nearby. Interestingly the author chose not use Champlains more recent 1632 map but the earlier 1612 Carte Geographique De La Nouvelle France; To avoid unknown territory he does not venture the river system further west, unlike Champlain. Along the Atlantic coast of Labrador we find for the first time much Dutch Nomenclature, reflecting their increased whaling activities in these waters. Hudson Bay is clearly derived from Briggs, 1625, except for the west coast where he introduces the cartography of Thomas James, 1633. The addition of a fox here could be seen as a veiled reference to Luke Foxe, whose own map of the previous year bears just such an animal.

$8,500.00 USD
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1798 Hayward Very Long View of New York City from Brooklyn, Pub. Valentine 1861

1798 Hayward Very Long View of New York City from Brooklyn, Pub. Valentine 1861

  • Title : A View of the City of New York from Brooklyn Heights, foot of Pierrepont St. in 1798 by Monsieur C. B. Julien, de St. Memin with a Pantograph invented by himself
  • Date : 1861
  • Condition: (A) Very Good Condition
  • Ref:  93131
  • Size: 55in x 7in (1.40m x 180mm)

Description:
This long (55in) original antique rare lithograph print, a view of New York City, from Brooklyn Heights, in 1798 by George Hayward was published in the 1861 edition of D T Valentines Manual of the Corporation of the City of New York or Valentines Manual.

A rare highly detailed and almost photograph like view of New York City, with names of houses and significant places recorded is one of the earliest real life views available as it was at the end of the 18th century. Included in the view is Trinity Church, Wall St., St. Paul\'s Church, the New York Hospital and many other early building of NYC.

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Light and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: -
Colors used: -
General color appearance: -
Paper size: - 55in x 7in (1.40m x 180mm)
Plate size: - 55in x 7in (1.40m x 180mm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (12mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Light chipping along edges
Plate area: - Folds as issued, light creasing, repair to first left fold
Verso: - Folds as issued, light creasing, repair to first left fold

Background: 
Manual of the Corporation of the City of New York or Valentines Manuals, published annually for nearly 30 years, contained hundreds of rare beautifully hand coloured contemporary and historical lithograph maps and views of New York City.

Valentine, David Thomas 1801 - 1869 
As the Clerk of the Common Council of New York City, Valentine edited and published a series of books on the history and contemporary facts of New York City entitled Manual of the Corporation Of The City of New York. They became know as Valentines Manuals with updates published annually, between 1841 & 1870. Valentine used his manuals to produce some of the rarest and most important maps & views of the city of New York, some of which occasionally appear on the market. His contribution to the historical record of New York city cannot be over stated.

$750.00 USD
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1744 Nicolas Bellin Large Important Antique Map of North America, Charlevoix

1744 Nicolas Bellin Large Important Antique Map of North America, Charlevoix

  • Title : Carte De La Louisiane Cours Du Mississipi et Pais Voisions Dediee a M la Comte de Maurepas...Par N Bellin Ingenieur de la Marine, 1744
  • Date : 1744
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition
  • Ref:  93108
  • Size: 29in x 20in (735mm x 515mm) 

Description:
This large original hand coloured copper-plate engraved antique map of North America by Nicolas Bellin, in 1744 - dated - was engraved by Guillaume Dheulland (1700-1770) & published in Pierre Francois Xavier Charlevoix book on Canada & North America Histoire et Description Generale de la Nouvelle France avec Le Journal Historique d\'un Voyage fait par Ordre du Roi dans L\'Amérique Septentrionnale

Extremely important, large and much overlooked map of North America, extending from New England, The Great Lakes to Florida and west to the Rio Grande River, New Mexico, east to Santa Fe, Taos, and the known regions of the Missouri Valley. Charlevoix map provides a remarkable overview of the regions of the future United, in the first half of the 18th Century.
The map tracks to the sources of the Mississippi River and depicts 4 of the 5 Great providing the most up to date information on the Mississippi River Basin, Ohio River and the major river systems between the Mississippi River and the Appalachians.
The map is one of Bellins earliest of North America and was published map the regions described in Charlevoix Histoire et description générale de la Nouvelle France and was also compiled in part from the Chaussegros de Lery manuscripts. The map is noteworthy for the mountain range in Michigan that did not exist, with detailed text on American Indian locations and lands and notes on French forts and other early settlements and towns.
In 1720 the Duke of Orleans sent the Jesuit scholar and explorer Pierre François-Xavier de Charlevoix to America to record events in New France and Louisiana and determine the best route to the Pacific Ocean. Charlevoix gathered geographic information from fur traders in Quebec and travelled through the Great Lakes and down the Mississippi River. After he returned to France, Charlevoix published his views on North America, which has become one of the most important works on North America prior to the French & Indian, 7 years, war.
It is recorded that Thomas Jefferson owned a copy of Charlevoix book and recommended it, along with the accounts of Hennepin and Lahontan, as a particularly useful for detail in the largely unexplored regions of North America. He referred to Charlevoix book & Bellins map as he developed his own ideas of Louisiana and the Northwest.

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: -
Colors used: -
General color appearance: -
Paper size: - 29in x 20in (735mm x 515mm)
Plate size: - 23in x 16 1/2in (590mm x 420mm)
Margins: - Min 1in (25mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Light soiling
Plate area: - None
Verso: - Light soiling

Background: 
Pierre-François-Xavier de Charlevoix 1682 - 1761 was a French Jesuit priest who wrote one of the earliest descriptive accounts of North America.
Sent from France on a scientific and exploratory mission to Canada, where he had previously stayed, he traveled up the St. Lawrence River in 1720, passed through the Great Lakes, made the portage to the Mississippi River, survived shipwreck in the Gulf of Mexico, and visited the island of Santo Domingo. Returning home, he wrote Histoire de Saint-Domingue and Histoire et description générale de la Nouvelle-France the latter of much historical value.

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1757 Nicolas Bellin Antique Map of the Great lakes of North America

1757 Nicolas Bellin Antique Map of the Great lakes of North America

Description:
This original copper-plate engraved antique map of The Great Lakes of North America by Jacques Nicolas Bellin, in 1757 was published in Antoine François Prevosts 15 volumes of Histoire Generale des Voyages written by Prevost & other authors between 1746-1790. 

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: -
Colors used: -
General color appearance: -
Paper size: - 14 1/2in x 10in (360mm x 255mm)
Plate size: - 12in x 8in (305mm x 205mm)
Margins: - Min 1in (25mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - Folds as issued
Verso: - None

Background: 
The mapping of the Great Lakes region began in the early seventeenth century, when the first indications of the lakes appeared on maps made by European cartographers. By the mid-1600s, the maps of French Royal Geographer Nicolas Sanson had recognizable depictions of all five Great Lakes. His map is imprecise—Lake Superior lacks its distinctive shape and is unbounded on the west—but Lakes Ontario, Erie, Huron and Michigan can be discerned without difficulty. The lack of any reference to the Mississippi River in Sansons map reflects how little cartographers really knew about the region at the time.
Until the late eighteenth century, maps were made with information acquired in an irregular and imprecise manner. They were not based on formal surveys, but on written records supplemented with sketches by explorers, missionaries and trappers traveling the Upper Midwest. European cartographers had the task of fitting together this often contradictory information and putting the results into the framework of a geographic map. Instead of being mapped in terms of latitude and longitude, prominent places were usually located in relation to other places, which were, of course, similarly positioned. Distances could not be measured with any accuracy at this time, so these maps were liable to gross errors.
The early maps in the Making Maps, Mapping History exhibit provide a capsulized view of the growth of geographical knowledge of the Great Lakes region. As noted above, Sansons map was the first to display all five of the Great Lakes. Vincenzo Maria Coronelli, the cosmographer of the Republic of Venice, used information supplied by Jesuit missionaries in a 1688 map that was the first accurate depiction of the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River. French cartographer Guillaume De LIsle further refined the image and provided an outline that was not substantially improved until surveyors entered the region in the nineteenth century.
The first official government surveys of the Great Lakes were hydrographic surveys conducted by the British Admiralty under the direction of Capt. Henry W. Bayfield. Bayfield spent his entire career surveying the St. Lawrence River and the Great Lakes, beginning with Lake Superior in 1816. The lake-shore city of Bayfield, Wis., was named in honor of this pioneer surveyor.
One of the first acts of the new government of the United States was to establish a system for the orderly settlement of its western lands. Under the Ordinance of 1785, land surveyors went into the western territories in advance of settlement to divide the land into townships of 36 square- mile sections. Though mapping was not the governments primary aim, the surveys provided ample grist for the mapmakers mill, and the regions were, for the first time, mapped with considerable accuracy. The federal government, however, was not yet in the business of making maps for the public. That was left to enterprising individuals, such as Samuel Morrison, Elisha Dwelle and Joshua Hathaway, who produced one of the first topographical maps of the Wisconsin Territory in 1837.
The surveys of the General Land Office served as the basis for the mapping of much of the Great Lakes region from around 1800, when the surveys began, until about 1890, when the U.S. Geological Survey began to map the region again. In some cases, however, the old surveys were not entirely superseded until the mid-20th century. The distinctive feature of maps based on these surveys is the invariable presence of the township grid.

As population and commerce in the Great Lakes region grew, the federal government assumed responsibility for charting the lakes for navigation. The U.S. Lake Survey began in 1841 with an appropriation of $15,000. Before the Civil War, the work was conducted by officers of the Corps of Topographical Engineers. Its initial survey was completed in 1882, but the need for contin- uous revisions caused it to be reactivated a few years later. The Topographical Engineers merged with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in 1863, and the Lake Survey remained in the hands of the Corps of Engineers until 1970, when it became part of the newly formed National Ocean Survey (now known as the National Ocean Service).
The U.S. Lake Survey conducted far more rigorous surveys than those of the General Land Office, which used instruments no more sophisticated than a surveyors compass and a Gunters chain. The Lake Survey used an array of precision instruments and employed triangulation to form the geographic framework of the maps. Triangulation allowed the transfer of geographical coordinates from point to point throughout the system and, for the first time, geographical locations were determined with precision. Inland navigation prompted Congress to order a variety of government surveys. During the era of canal building, surveys like the one for the Portage Canal were common. Most of them were conducted by the Corps of Engineers, as were the surveys of the great rivers, such as the Mississippi.
The degree of accuracy accorded Great Lakes navigators was generally not matched on land for many years to come. The task of precisely mapping the United States by covering it with large-scale topographic quadrangle maps was given to the newly formed U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in the 1880s. John Wesley Powell, the second director of the USGS, stated that the mapping of the United States could be accomplished in 25 years, but that goal was not accomplished until the 1980s. The first topographic maps of Wisconsin appeared in the 1890s, when much of the southeastern part of the state was surveyed. The surveys were quickly done, however, and most of the sheets needed at least minor revision within the next decade. Despite a rapid start, the topographic mapping of Wisconsin bogged down and ultimately was not completed until 1983. Mapping standards changed entirely with the application of aerial photography around 1930. Following World War II, all Wisconsin topographic sheets were derived from photographs.
Today, polar-orbiting satellites with thematic mappers can, in a single day, record images that reveal Great Lakes water quality and temperature, the streets and large buildings of urban areas, and the general health of forests, wetlands and farmlands, including the identity of such crops as corn, hay and alfalfa. The detailed precision of todays computerized Space Age technology no doubt would have astounded Nicolas Sanson—but the seventeenth-century mapmakers ability to create a fairly accurate map of a world he had only heard and read about is equally astounding to twenty-first-century mapmakers.

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1777 Homann Antique Map Colonial United States, North America Revolutionary War

1777 Homann Antique Map Colonial United States, North America Revolutionary War

  • Title : America Septentrionalis a domino d Anville in Galiis edita nunc in Anglia coloniis in interiorem Virginiam deductis nec non fluvii Ohio cursu aucta notisq geographicis et historicis illustrata.....1777
  • Date : 1777
  • Condition: (A) Very Good Condition
  • Ref:  93123
  • Size: 20 1/2in x 18 1/2in (510mm x 470mm)

Description:
This magnificent hand coloured original copper-plate engraved antique map of the Colonial United States, at the beginning of the American Revolutionary War, was engraved in 1777 - dated in cartouche - by the Homann firm, Germany.

Detailed map of the British Colonies in North America, published at the beginning of the American Revolution. The map is based on the cartography of J.B.B. D Anville, although the political boundaries are British leaning, based upon Thomas Jefferys map of the British Colonies published in 1755 for the political detail. The map depicts the various British colonial claims, including: Bounds of Hudson Bay by the Treaty of Utrecht, North Limits of New England by Charter of 1620 (to the west of Lake Superior) Boundary between Virginia & New England, Boundary between Carolina & Virginia, Boundary of South Carolina by Charter of 1663. Also shown are notes many British Forts, a well as Walkers Settlement on the Cumberland or Shannowens River. Many Indian Tribes are also noted. To the bottom right and top left are annotations of the English occupation of North America dating back to Cabot in 1497, with a brief historical account of each of the British Colonies. Also included is a similar account of the French history in North America.

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: - Original & later
Colors used: - Yellow, green, blue, pink
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 20 1/2in x 18 1/2in (510mm x 470mm)
Plate size: - 20 1/2in x 18 1/2in (510mm x 470mm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (12mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Margins cropped to plate-mark
Plate area: - Age toned
Verso: - Age toned

Background: 
The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence, was an 18th-century war between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies (allied with France) which declared independence as the United States of America.
After 1765, growing constitutional and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress (with the exception of Georgia) to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power.
British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia in Concord led to open combat and a British defeat on April 19, 1775. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, the Americans failed decisively in an attempt to invade Quebec and raise insurrection against the British. On July 2, 1776, the Second Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777.
Burgoynes defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a Southern strategy led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at Kings Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781.
Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in America, but the war continued overseas. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive, but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.

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1756 Homann Antique Map Colonial United States North America French Indian War

1756 Homann Antique Map Colonial United States North America French Indian War

  • Title : America Septentrionalis a domino d Anville in Galiis edita nunc in Anglia coloniis in interiorem Virginiam deductis nec non fluvii Ohio cursu aucta notisq geographicis et historicis illustrata.....1756
  • Date : 1756
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition
  • Ref:  93124 
  • Size: 25 1/2in x 21in (650mm x 535mm)

Description:
This magnificent hand coloured original copper-plate engraved antique 1st edition map of the Colonial United States, at the beginning of the French-Indian war, was engraved in 1756 - dated in cartouche - by the Homann firm, Germany.

Impressive first edition of The Homann map of the English Colonies in North America prior to the start of the French and Indian War. The map stretches just west of the Mississippi River to the east and from James Bay through the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico. Although most of the text is in German, there is also much in English, including numerous place named annotations associated the French and Indian War, such as the locations of Fort Duquesne and Fort Necessity, both taken by the French in 1754. Thus although the cartographer credits D Anville for the basic cartography, it is clear he is drawing from English, not French, sources. Bottom right and upper left are notes offering the history of North America.

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: - Original & later
Colors used: - Yellow, green, blue, pink
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 25 1/2in x 21in (650mm x 535mm)
Plate size: - 21in x 18 1/2in (535mm x 485mm)
Margins: - Min 1in (25mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Light soiling in margins
Plate area: - None
Verso: - None

Background: 
The French and Indian War (1754–63) comprised the North American theatre of the worldwide Seven Years War of 1756–63. It pitted the colonies of British America against those of New France. Both sides were supported by military units from their parent countries, as well as by American Indian allies. At the start of the war, the French North American colonies had a population of roughly 60,000 settlers, compared with 2 million in the British North American colonies. The outnumbered French particularly depended on the Indians. The European nations declared war on one another in 1756 following months of localized conflict, escalating the war from a regional affair into an intercontinental conflict.
The name French and Indian War is used mainly in the United States. It refers to the two enemies of the British colonists, the royal French forces and their various American Indian allies. The British colonists were supported at various times by the Iroquois, Catawba, and Cherokee, and the French colonists were supported by Wabanaki Confederacy members Abenaki and Mikmaq, and Algonquin, Lenape, Ojibwa, Ottawa, Shawnee, and Wyandot.
British and other European historians use the term the Seven Years War, as do English-speaking Canadians. French Canadians call it La guerre de la Conquête (the War of the Conquest) or (rarely) the Fourth Intercolonial War.
Fighting took place primarily along the frontiers between New France and the British colonies, from Virginia in the south to Newfoundland in the north. It began with a dispute over control of the confluence of the Allegheny River and Monongahela River called the Forks of the Ohio, and the site of the French Fort Duquesne in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The dispute erupted into violence in the Battle of Jumonville Glen in May 1754, during which Virginia militiamen under the command of 22-year-old George Washington ambushed a French patrol.
In 1755, six colonial governors in North America met with General Edward Braddock, the newly arrived British Army commander, and planned a four-way attack on the French. None succeeded, and the main effort by Braddock proved a disaster; he lost the Battle of the Monongahela on July 9, 1755 and died a few days later. British operations failed in the frontier areas of Pennsylvania and New York during 1755–57 due to a combination of poor management, internal divisions, effective Canadian scouts, French regular forces, and Indian warrior allies. In 1755, the British captured Fort Beauséjour on the border separating Nova Scotia from Acadia, and they ordered the expulsion of the Acadians (1755–64) soon afterwards. Orders for the deportation were given by William Shirley, Commander-in-Chief, North America, without direction from Great Britain. The Acadians were expelled, both those captured in arms and those who had sworn the loyalty oath to His Britannic Majesty. Indians likewise were driven off the land to make way for settlers from New England.
The British colonial government fell in the region of modern Nova Scotia after several disastrous campaigns in 1757, including a failed expedition against Louisbourg and the Siege of Fort William Henry; this last was followed by Indians torturing and massacring their British victims. William Pitt came to power and significantly increased British military resources in the colonies at a time when France was unwilling to risk large convoys to aid the limited forces that they had in New France, preferring to concentrate their forces against Prussia and its allies in the European theater of the war. Between 1758 and 1760, the British military launched a campaign to capture the Colony of Canada (part of New France). They succeeded in capturing territory in surrounding colonies and ultimately the city of Quebec (1759). The British later lost the Battle of Sainte-Foy west of Quebec (1760), but the French ceded Canada in accordance with the Treaty of Paris (1763).
The outcome was one of the most significant developments in a century of Anglo-French conflict. France ceded to Great Britain its territory east of the Mississippi. It ceded French Louisiana west of the Mississippi River (including New Orleans) to its ally Spain in compensation for Spains loss to Britain of Florida. (Spain had ceded Florida to Britain in exchange for the return of Havana, Cuba.) Frances colonial presence north of the Caribbean was reduced to the islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, confirming Great Britains position as the dominant colonial power in eastern North America.

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