Sold (158)

Sort by:
1799 Le Barbier Large Antique Print Consecration of Cora to the Sun Cult, Mexico

1799 Le Barbier Large Antique Print Consecration of Cora to the Sun Cult, Mexico

Description:
This beautifully engraved large original antique print of the Consecration of Cora to the Sun Cult after Jean Jacques Francois Le Barbier was engraved by Louis-François Marriage in ca 1799.

Louis-François Mariage is a French dotted engraver who was active in Paris between 1785 and 1828. He sometimes signed his inverted surname, Egairam .

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: -
Colors used: -
General color appearance: -
Paper size: - 21in x 18 1/2in (535mm x 470mm)
Plate size: - 21in x 18 1/2in (535mm x 470mm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (12mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Light soiling, small re-join to bottom margin
Plate area: - Small repair to top of image, no loss
Verso: - Light soiling

Background: 
The Cora are an indigenous ethnic group of Western Central Mexico which live in the municipality El Nayar in the Mexican state of Nayarit and in a few settlements in the neighboring state of Jalisco. They call themselves náayerite whence the name of the present day Mexican state of Nayarit.
The Cora live in the rugged mountain and canyon country of Nayarit and across the border in neighboring Jalisco, Durango, and Sinaloa. In the early 18th century they were an anomaly in that they had never permitted Catholic missionaries to live in their country. They had become a pagan island in a sea of Christian Indians and Hispanic culture. In 1716, a Spanish expedition to attempt to bring the Cora under Spanish control failed. However, in 1722, the Spanish returned in force and the Cora yielded. According to Spanish accounts many of them became Christian and practice, up until the present, Catholic-derived customs.
The Cora religion is a syncretism between the pre-Conquest religion and Catholicism.
The ancestral Cora religion has three principal divinities. The supreme god is the sun god, Tayau, our father. He travels across the sky during the day, sitting down in his golden throne at noon. Clouds are believed to be smoke from his pipe. In earlier times the priests of Tayau, the tonatí, were the highest authority of the Cora communities. His wife is Tetewan, the underworld goddess associated with the moon, rain, and the west. Her alternate names are Hurima and Nasisa. Their son, Sautari, the flower picker, is associated with maize and the afternoon. Other names for him are Hatsikan, big brother, Tahás, and Ora. He is also associated with Jesus Christ.
Some Cora myths clearly have Mesoamerican origins; for example, the myth of the creation of the fifth sun. Others are shared with the geographically and linguistically adjacent Huichol; for example, the myth of the human race being the offspring of a man and a dog-woman who were the only survivors of a mythical cataclysmic deluge.

$650.00 USD
More Info
1614 Sebastian Munster Original Antique Map of America - After Abraham Ortelius

1614 Sebastian Munster Original Antique Map of America - After Abraham Ortelius

  • Title : Americae sive Novi Orbis Nova Descriptio / Die Newe Welt oder Inseln so hinder Hispania gegen Orient/ ben dem Landt Indie gelegen
  • Date : 1614
  • Ref:  82003
  • Size: 17in x 14 1/2in (430mm x 370mm)
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition

Description:
This fine original antique map of America - the second published by Munster since his 1540 map and geographically based on the same 1570 Abraham Ortelius map - was published by Sebastian Petri in the 1514 edition of Cosmographia.
This map in this condition is rare. It is clean with a heavy impression, original margins in the original B&W as published. One of the best examples of this map I have seen for sometime.

The Cosmographia or Cosmography was first published in 1544 and is the earliest German-language description of the world.
It had numerous editions in different languages including Latin, French (translated by François de Belleforest), Italian, English, and Czech. The last German edition was published in 1628. The Cosmographia was one of the most successful and popular books of the 16th century and passed through 24 editions in 100 years. This success was due to the notable woodcuts (some by Hans Holbein the Younger, Urs Graf, Hans Rudolph Manuel Deutsch, and David Kandel). It was most important in reviving geography in 16th-century Europe. Among the notable maps within Cosmographia is the map Die Newe Welt oder Inseln, which is credited as the first map to show the American continents as geographically unique.
Munsters earlier geographic works were Germania descriptio (1530) and Mappa Europae (1536). In 1540, he published a Latin edition of Ptolemy\\\'s Geographia, with numerous illustrations.

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: -
Colors used: -
General color appearance: -
Paper size: - 17in x 14 1/2in (430mm x 370mm)
Plate size: - 17in x 14 1/2in (430mm x 370mm)
Margins: - Min 1in (25mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - None
Verso: - None

Background: 
This map covers all of North and South America from a mysterious inland lake (Conibas?) to Tierra del Fuego, and from New Guiana to beyond the easternmost coast of Brazil. This map is Petris major revision of Sebastian Munster\\\'s original 1540 map of America and is based almost entirely on Ortelius 1570 map of the same region. The map features many of the cartographic anomalies and false suppositions common to the period. Teirra de Fuego remains connected to the mysterious southern continent - suggesting that information from Drake\\\'s voyages had not yet filtered into central Europe. The large bulge on the western coast of South America, near Chile, also remains. A collection of islands in the pacific, situated suspiciously close to the western coast of the Pacific is identified as the Archipeago di San Lazao, a term that Magellan gave the Ladrones, which are in fact located much further west. New Guinea is oversized and apparently connected to the unknown southern continent. IN North America a great bay in inland lake or bay extends into the heart of the continent from the map\\\'s border. This is most likely a remnant of Verazanno\\\'s Sea and the precursor of the legendary Lake Conibas. On the west coast of North America Quivara, Anian, and Tolm, possibly terms derived from Marco Polo, appear prominently. This map was engraved in woodcut c. 1588 and published in Basel by Sebastian Petri. After 1588, this map was only issued in posthumous German editions of Sebastian Munsters Cosmographia issued in 1592, 1598, 1614, and 1628, and is thus rare.

$2,250.00 USD
More Info
1778 Capt Cook Antique Print of the Tahitian Fleet, Oparee Reef, Tahiti in 1773

1778 Capt Cook Antique Print of the Tahitian Fleet, Oparee Reef, Tahiti in 1773

  • Title : Flotte D Otahiti Assemblee A Oparee (The Fleet of Otaheite assembled at Oparee)
  • Size: 15in x 10in (380mm x 255mm)
  • Ref #:  21426
  • Date : 1778
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition

Description:
This large original copper-plate engraved antique print a view of
theTahitian fleet, met by Captain James Cook at Oparee Reef, west of Matavai Bay Tahiti, visited by Captain James Cook in 1773, during his 2nd Voyage of Discovery to the South Seas, was engraved by Robert Benard - after William Hodges - and was published in the 1778 French edition of Capt. James Cooks 2nd Voyage of Discovery to the South Seas A voyage towards the South Pole, and round the World. Performed in His Majestys ships the Resolution and Adventure, in the years 1772, 1773, 1774, and 1775..... Paris : Hotel de Thou ......1778.

Cooks Journal 1773
On 20th Aug, wrote Cook, Nothing worthy of note happened till the Dusk of the evening when one of the Natives made off with a musquet belonging to the Guard on shore, I was present when this happen\'d and sent two or three of our people after him, this would have signified but little had not some of the natives pursued the thief, knock\'d him down and took from him the Musquet and return\'d it to us.
Three days later I set out accompanied by Captain Furneaux some of the Gentlemen and several of the Natives, we met the Chief... I knew him at first sight and he me, having seen each other several times in 1769 at which time he was but a boy. According to Wales the Capt returned from his Visit to the King, Owhyadoa, having with much difficulty, and expince in presents &c procured three Hogs.

Off to Matavai Bay
The next day, wrote Burney we hove our Anchors up & saild from this place, the Commodore leaving his Cutter behind to try if they could procure any more Hogs - the next day (25th) the Cutter returned about Noon with 10 which were divided between the 2 Ships - at 7 this Evening we Anchored in Matavia Bay in 10 fathoms & Moord with our Small Bower & Stream Anchors.
When the natives came aboard, Cook found several of whom I knew and almost all of them me... In the morning, after having given directions about erecting Tents for the reception of the Sick, Coopers and guard, I set out for Oparre accompanied by Captain Furneaux, some of the gentlemen... as soon as we landed we were conducted to Otoo [Tu], the chief.
When Cook returned, he had the Sick land, Twenty from the Adventure and one from the Resolution, landed a sufficient number of men to guard the Whole and left the command to Lieutt Edgcombe of the Marines. A party of Marines being sent on Shore as a Guard, wrote Wales, I landed my Observatory and Instruments and begun to put them up on the Spot where Mr Green Observed the Transit of Venus in 1769.

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: -
Colors used: -
General color appearance: -
Paper size: - 15in x 10in (380mm x 255mm)
Plate size: - 15in x 9 1/2in (380mm x 245mm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (12mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - L&R margins cropped to plate-mark
Plate area: - None
Verso: - None

Background: 
Tahiti previously also known as Otaheite is the largest island in the Windward group of French Polynesia. The island is located in the archipelago of the Society Islands in the central Southern Pacific Ocean.
The first European to have visited Tahiti according to existing records was lieutenant Samuel Wallis, who was circumnavigating the globe in HMS Dolphin, sighting the island on 18 June 1767, and eventually harboring in Matavai Bay. This bay was situated on the territory of the chiefdom of Pare-Arue, governed by Tu (Tu-nui-e-a a-i-te-Atua) and his regent Tutaha, and the chiefdom of Ha apape, governed by Amo and his wife Oberea (Purea). Wallis named the island King Georges Island. The first contacts were difficult, since on the 24 and 26 June 1767, Tahitian warriors in canoes showed aggression towards the British, hurling stones from their slings. In retaliation, the British sailors opened fire on the warriors in the canoes and on the hills. In reaction to this powerful counter-attack, the Tahitians laid down peace offerings for the British. Following this episode, Samuel Wallis was able to establish cordial relations with the female chieftain “Oberea “ (Purea) and remained on the island until 27 July 1767.
In July 1768, Captain James Cook was commissioned by the Royal Society and on orders from the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty to observe the transit of Venus across the sun, a phenomenon that would be visible from Tahiti on 3 June 1769. He arrived in Tahitis Matavai Bay, commanding the HMS Endeavour on 12 April 1769. On 14 April, Cook met with Tutaha and Tepau. On 15 April, Cook picked the site for a fortified camp at Point Venus along with Banks, Parkinson, Daniel Solander, to protect Charles Greens observatory. The length of stay enabled them to undertake for the first time real ethnographic and scientific observations of the island. Assisted by the botanist Joseph Banks, and by the artist Sydney Parkinson, Cook gathered valuable information on the fauna and flora, as well as the native society, language and customs, including the proper name of the island, Otaheite. On 28 April, Cook met Purea and Tupaia, and Tupaia befriended Banks following the transit. On 21 June, Amo visited Cook, and then on 25 June, Pohuetea visited, signifying another chief seeking to ally himself with the British.
Cook and Banks circumnavigated the island from 26 June to 1 July. On the exploration, they met Ahio, chief of Ha apaiano o or Papenoo, Rita, chief of Hitia a, Pahairro, chief of Pueu, Vehiatua, chief of Tautra, Matahiapo, chief of Teahupo o, Tutea, chief of Vaira o, and Moe, chief of Afa Ahiti. In Papara, guided by Tupaia, they investigated the ruins of Mahaiatea marae, an impressive structure containing a stone pyramid or ahu, measuring 44 feet high, 267 feet long and 87 feet wide. Cook and the Endeavour departed Tahiti on 13 July 1769, taking Raiatean navigator Tupaia along for his geographic knowledge of the islands.
Cook returned to Tahiti between 15 August and 1 September 1773, greeted by the chiefs Tai and Puhi, besides the youg ari i Vehiatua II and his stepfather Ti itorea. Cook anchored in Vaitepiha Bay before returning to Point Venus where he met Tu, the paramount chief. Cook picked up two passengers from Tahiti during this trip, Porea and Mai, with Hitihiti later replacing Porea when Cook stopped at Raiatea. Cook took Hitihiti to Tahiti on 22 April, during his return leg. Then, Cook departed Tahiti on 14 May 1774.
During his final visit, Cook returned Mai to Tahiti on 12 Aug. 1777, after Mais long visit in England. Cook also brought two Maori from Queen Charlotte Sound, Te Weherua and Koa. Cook first harbored in Vaitepiha Bay, where he visited Vehiatua II s funeral bier and the prefabricated Spanish mission house. Cook also met Vehiatua III, and inscribed on the back of the Spanish cross, Georgius tertius Rex Annis 1767, 69, 73, 74 & 77, as a counterpoint to Christus Vincit Carolus III imperat 1774 on the front. On 23 Aug., Cook sailed for Matavai Bay, where he met Tu, his father Teu, his mother Tetupaia, his brothers Ari ipaea and Vaetua, and his sisters Ari ipaea-vahine, Tetua-te-ahamai, and Auo. Cook also observed a human sacrifice, taata tapu, at the Utu-ai-mahurau marae, and 49 skulls from previous victims.
On 29 Sept. 1777, Cook sailed for Papetoai Bay on Moorea. Cook met Mahine in an act of friendship on 3 Oct., though he was an enemy of Tu. When a goat kid was stolen on 6 Oct., Cook in a rampage, ordered the burning of houses and canoes until it was returned. Cook sailed for Huahine on 11 Oct., Raiatea on 2 Nov., and Borabora on 7 Dec.
On 26 October 1788, HMS Bounty, under the command of Captain William Bligh, landed in Tahiti with the mission of carrying Tahitian breadfruit trees (Tahitian: uru) to the Caribbean. Sir Joseph Banks, the botanist from James Cooks first expedition, had concluded that this plant would be ideal to feed the African slaves working in the Caribbean plantations at very little cost. The crew remained in Tahiti for about five months, the time needed to transplant the seedlings of the trees. Three weeks after leaving Tahiti, on 28 April 1789, the crew mutinied on the initiative of Fletcher Christian. The mutineers seized the ship and set the captain and most of those members of the crew who remained loyal to him adrift in a ships boat. A group of mutineers then went back to settle in Tahiti.
Although various explorers had refused to get involved in tribal conflicts, the mutineers from the Bounty offered their services as mercenaries and furnished arms to the family which became the Pōmare Dynasty. The chief Tū knew how to use their presence in the harbours favoured by sailors to his advantage. As a result of his alliance with the mutineers, he succeeded in considerably increasing his supremacy over the island of Tahiti.

William Hodges RA 1744 – 1797 was an English painter. He was a member of James Cooks second voyage to the Pacific Ocean, and is best known for the sketches and paintings of locations he visited on that voyage, including Table Bay, Tahiti, Easter Island, and the Antarctic.
Between 1772 and 1775 Hodges accompanied James Cook to the Pacific as the expeditions artist. Many of his sketches and wash paintings were adapted as engravings in the original published edition of Cooks journals from the voyage.
Most of the large-scale landscape oil paintings from his Pacific travels for which Hodges is best known were finished after his return to London; he received a salary from the Admiralty for the purposes of completing them. These paintings depicted a stronger light and shadow than had been usual in European landscape tradition. Contemporary art critics complained that his use of light and colour contrasts gave his paintings a rough and unfinished appearance.
Hodges also produced many valuable portrait sketches of Pacific islanders and scenes from the voyage involving members of the expedition..

Robert Bénard 1734 – 1777 was an 18th-century French engraver.
Specialized in the technique of engraving, Robert Ménard is mainly famous for having supplied a significant amount of plates (at least 1,800) to the Encyclopédie by Diderot & d\'Alembert from 1751.
Later, publisher Charles-Joseph Panckoucke reused many of his productions to illustrate the works of his catalog.

$149.00 USD
More Info
1785 Cook Antique Print View of Ust-Bolsheretsk, Kamchatka Peninsula Russia 1779

1785 Cook Antique Print View of Ust-Bolsheretsk, Kamchatka Peninsula Russia 1779

  • Title : Vue De Bolcheretzkoi Bourgade Du Kamtchatka (View of Ust-Bolsheretsk town in Kamchatka)
  • Size: 14 1/2in x 10in (370mm x 255mm)
  • Ref #:  31796
  • Date : 1785
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition

Description:
This fine original copper-plate engraved antique print view of the settlement of Ust-Bolsheretsk on west coast of the Kamchatka Peninsula in Eastern Russia, visited by HMS Resolution & Discovery in December 1779, after the death of Cook, with Resolution under the command of Captain Clerk, during the 3rd & last Voyage of Discovery, was engraved by Robert Benard - after John Webber - and was published in the 1785 French edition of Capt. James Cook & Capt. James King publication A Voyage to the Pacific Ocean. Undertaken, by the Command of his Majesty, for making Discoveries in the Northern Hemisphere. To determine The Position and Extent of the West Side of North America; its Distance from Asia; and the Practicability of a Northern Passage to Europe. Performed under the direction of Captains Cook, Clerke, and Gore, In His Majestys Ships the Resolution and Discovery. In the Years 1776, 1777, 1778, 1779, and 1780. In Three Volumes. Vol. I and II written by James Cook, F.R.S. Vol. III by Captain James King, LL.D. and F.R.S. Paris, 1785.

On May 13 1779, Capt. King recorded;
We employd the afternoon in seeing the town & Country for many miles about is a low swamp....The Earth was in most parts cover\'d with snow;.....We saw I suppose 20 or 30 Milch Cows & the Maor [Behm} had 6 stout horses, all of which were in good Case; These & the dogs are the only domestic Animals ...The houses are all after the fashion, that is built of logs & thatch\'d. King/Cook Journals III, 667-8.

Journal 1779
Jan. 5 Tue. Passes south of Island, Kalae. Frequently visited by canoes with supplies.
17 Sun. Anchors at Kealakekua Bay. Provisions ships and meets inhabitants who appear friendly and seem to reverence him.
Feb. 1 Mon. William Watman, seaman, dies of a stroke and is buried near a chief\'s burial place.
4 Thu. Ships sail north to investigate islands.
6 Sat. Off Kawaihae Bay.
8 Mon. Finds that the mast is sprung (it had been replaced in Nootka Sound) and decides to head back to Kealakekua Bay to replace it.
11 Wed. Anchors in Bay.
14 Sun. Cook along with Marines, Corporal Thomas, Privates Hinks, Allen and Fatchett are killed ashore near village of Kaawaloa, about 9 a.m. There had been ill feeling, menaces and theft - particularly Discovery\'s cutter - and Cook had gone ashore to settle the matter. Confusion, musket fire and mis-interpreted signals led to the tragedy and the resulting contemporary confusion of accounts and paintings of the scene. Clerke assumes command of Resolution and the voyage and Gore takes over the Discovery.
20 Sat. Clerke demands and obtains Cook\'s remains from the natives. The disfigured head, unrecognisable, severed hands - one identified by distinctive scar between thumb and forefinger of right hand caused by explosion of powder horn, 6th. August 1764, Noddy Harbour, Newfoundland. Possible jawbone and feet later returned with shoes and damaged musket.
21 Sun. Cook\'s remains are placed in coffin and he is buried at sea in the late afternoon.
22 Mon. Sails for Kamchatka.
24 Wed. Off Kahoolawe, Males Bay, sights Kekaa Point (W. tip of Maui).
25 Thu. Sights Lanai, Cape Kaea.
26 Fri. Off Molokai and Oahu.
27 Sat. Goes ashore at Waimea Bay.
28 Sun. Sights Kauai.
Mar. 1 Mon. Goes ashore again, trouble. Remains until 8 March.
8 Mon. Off Cape Kawaihoa (Niihau). Goes ashore. Trading & supplies.
15 Mon. Sails, finally, for Kamchatka.
Apr. 23 Tue. Kamchatka sighted.
29 Mon. Anchors in Avacha Bay, about 7½ miles from Petropavlovsk. Several anchorages are then tried in Bay. Clerke decides to send letters to Major Behm, Governor. Gore, King and Webber sent by sledge. Also take Cook\'s Journal etc.; which arrive at the Admiralty, London, seven months later. Vessels provisioned etc. Visited by Russian soldiers, merchants and local priest. Observatory erected
May 7 Fri. Above party, Russian merchants, Germans set off for Bolsherstsk where they are well received.

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: -
Colors used: -
General color appearance: -
Paper size: - 14 1/2in x 10in (370mm x 255mm)
Plate size: - 14in x 10in (365mm x 255mm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (12mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Light soiling
Plate area: - None
Verso: - Light soiling

Background: 
The Kamchatka Peninsula is a 1,250 kilometer long peninsula in the Russian Far East.
Politically, the peninsula forms part of Kamchatka Krai. The southern tip is called Cape Lopatka. The circular bay to the north of this on the Pacific side is Avacha Bay with the capital, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky.

Captain James King FRS 1750 – 1784 was an officer of the Royal Navy. He served under James Cook on his last voyage around the world, specialising in taking important astronomical readings using a sextant. After Cook died he helped lead the ships on the remainder of their course, also completing Cooks account of the voyage. He continued his career in the Navy, reaching the rank of post-captain, commanding several ships and serving in the American War of Independence.
King joined HMS Resolution as second lieutenant, sharing the duties of astronomer with Cook, taking astronomical observations on board by sextant and with Larcum Kendals timekeeper K1, to establish the Resolutions position at sea and on shore by sextant or by astronomical quadrant to establish the geographical position of salient points during the course of Cooks surveys. Thus Kings geographical positions were an important contribution to the accuracy of the various surveys carried out during the voyage and his use of the early chronometers helped prove their use at sea for calculation of Longitude. .
Following the death of Cook, King remained in the Resolution but on the death of Charles Clerke, Cooks successor, King was appointed to command HMS Discovery, the Resolutions consort, remaining in her for the rest of the voyage. After his return to England King was very much involved in the publication of the official account of Cooks third voyage, writing the third volume at Woodstock, near Oxford, where his brother Thomas was rector of St Mary Magdalene. But shortly after his return King was promoted Post-captain and appointed commander of HMS Crocodile in the English Channel.

John Webber RA 1751 – 1793 was an English artist who accompanied Captain Cook on his third Pacific expedition. He is best known for his images of Australasia, Hawaii and Alaska.
Webber was born in London, educated in Bern and studied painting at Paris.His father was Abraham Wäber, a Swiss sculptor who had moved to London, and changed his name to Webber before marrying a Mrs Mary Quant in 1744.
Webber served as official artist on James Cooks third voyage of discovery around the Pacific (1776–80) aboard HMS Resolution. At Adventure Bay in January 1777 he did drawings of A Man of Van Diemens Land and A Woman of Van Diemens Land. He also did many drawings of scenes in New Zealand and the South Sea islands. On this voyage, during which Cook lost his life in a fight in Hawaii, Webber became the first European artist to make contact with Hawaii, then called the Sandwich Islands. He made numerous watercolor landscapes of the islands of Kauai and Hawaii, and also portrayed many of the Hawaiian people.
In April 1778, Captain Cooks ships Resolution and Discovery anchored at Ship Cove, now known as Nootka Sound, Vancouver Island, Canada to refit. The crew took observations and recorded encounters with the local people. Webber made watercolour landscapes including Resolution and Discovery in Ship Cove, 1778. His drawings and paintings were engraved for British Admiraltys account of the expedition, which was published in 1784.
Back in England in 1780 Webber exhibited around 50 works at Royal Academy exhibitions between 1784 and 1792, and was elected an associate of the Royal Academy in 1785 and R.A. in 1791. Most of his work were landscapes. Sometimes figures were included as in A Party from H.M.S. Resolution shooting sea horses, which was shown at the academy in 1784, and his The Death of Captain Cook became well known through an engraving of it. Another version of this picture is in the William Dixson gallery at Sydney

Robert Bénard 1734 – 1777 was an 18th-century French engraver.
Specialized in the technique of engraving, Robert Ménard is mainly famous for having supplied a significant amount of plates (at least 1,800) to the Encyclopédie by Diderot & d Alembert from 1751.
Later, publisher Charles-Joseph Panckoucke reused many of his productions to illustrate the works of his catalog.

$149.00 USD
More Info
1778 Capt Cook Antique Print View of Oaite Peha or Vaitepiha Bay, Tahiti in 1773

1778 Capt Cook Antique Print View of Oaite Peha or Vaitepiha Bay, Tahiti in 1773

  • Title : L Isle D Otahiti restant au S E a la distance d une Lieue (SE Tahiti, at a distance of a League)
  • Size: 21in x 10in (535mm x 255mm)
  • Ref #:  21434
  • Date : 1778
  • Condition: (A) Very Good Condition

Description:
This large original copper-plate engraved antique print of various boats and a view of Oaite Peha (Vaitepiha) Bay on the Island of Tahiti, visited by Captain James Cook in August 1773, during his 2nd Voyage of Discovery to the South Seas, was engraved by Robert Benard - after William Hodges - and was published in the 1778 French edition of Capt. James Cooks 2nd Voyage of Discovery to the South Seas A voyage towards the South Pole, and round the World. Performed in His Majestys ships the Resolution and Adventure, in the years 1772, 1773, 1774, and 1775..... Paris : Hotel de Thou ......1778.

Cooks journal 1773
Aug. 2 Mon. Passes close to Pitcairn Island but without sighting it.
11 Wed. Sights Resolution Island = Tauere on 1st. Voyage. Entering Tuamotu Archipelago.
12 Thu. Off Tekokoto (Doubtful) Island, Maurutea (Furneaux) Island.
13 Fri. Off Motutunga (Stephen’s Isle > Sandwich Island > Hervey’s Isle).
14 Sat. Off Anaa (Chain Island on 1st. Voyage).
15 Sun. Sights Osnaburg Island (Mehetia) and Otaheite (Tahiti). Approaching Society Islands.
17 Tue. Resolution almost on reef, Tautira Basin, Vaitepiha Bay, hauled off, in emergency, two miles. Loses bower anchor. Anchors in Cook Anchorage, Oaitipeha/Vaitepiha Bay. Chiefs come aboard.
18 Wed. Sends Gilbert with cutter to recover anchor, successfully. Entertains, then is forced to eject thieves.
20 Fri. Recovers stolen musket. Marine Isaac Taylor dies.
23 Mon. Meets Chief Ta’atauraura who entertains him.
24 Tue. Sails.
26 Thu. Anchors in Matavai Bay. Lands.
27 Fri. Visited by Chief Otoo/Tu who entertains Cook with feast and dramatics. Wales and Bayly set up observatory (at Venus Point, same place as 1769).
28 Sat. Entertainments again.
29 Sun. With Furneaux visits Otoo again. Sees “Dramatick Heave or Play”.
30 Mon. After a disturbance would-be deserters returned to ship.
31 Tue. Visits Otoo who has retreated inland after the disorder. Presents exchanged and Otoo returns.
Sep. 1 Wed. Takes Tahitian, Porio, aboard and sails for Huahine.

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: -
Colors used: -
General color appearance: -
Paper size: - 21in x 10in (535mm x 255mm)
Plate size: - 19 1/2in x 9 1/2in (495mm x 240mm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (12mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Light soiling
Plate area: - Folds as issued, wear along folds
Verso: - Light soiling

Background: 
Tahiti previously also known as Otaheite is the largest island in the Windward group of French Polynesia. The island is located in the archipelago of the Society Islands in the central Southern Pacific Ocean.
The first European to have visited Tahiti according to existing records was lieutenant Samuel Wallis, who was circumnavigating the globe in HMS Dolphin, sighting the island on 18 June 1767, and eventually harboring in Matavai Bay. This bay was situated on the territory of the chiefdom of Pare-Arue, governed by Tu (Tu-nui-e-a a-i-te-Atua) and his regent Tutaha, and the chiefdom of Ha apape, governed by Amo and his wife Oberea (Purea). Wallis named the island King Georges Island. The first contacts were difficult, since on the 24 and 26 June 1767, Tahitian warriors in canoes showed aggression towards the British, hurling stones from their slings. In retaliation, the British sailors opened fire on the warriors in the canoes and on the hills. In reaction to this powerful counter-attack, the Tahitians laid down peace offerings for the British. Following this episode, Samuel Wallis was able to establish cordial relations with the female chieftain “Oberea “ (Purea) and remained on the island until 27 July 1767.
In July 1768, Captain James Cook was commissioned by the Royal Society and on orders from the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty to observe the transit of Venus across the sun, a phenomenon that would be visible from Tahiti on 3 June 1769. He arrived in Tahitis Matavai Bay, commanding the HMS Endeavour on 12 April 1769. On 14 April, Cook met with Tutaha and Tepau. On 15 April, Cook picked the site for a fortified camp at Point Venus along with Banks, Parkinson, Daniel Solander, to protect Charles Greens observatory. The length of stay enabled them to undertake for the first time real ethnographic and scientific observations of the island. Assisted by the botanist Joseph Banks, and by the artist Sydney Parkinson, Cook gathered valuable information on the fauna and flora, as well as the native society, language and customs, including the proper name of the island, Otaheite. On 28 April, Cook met Purea and Tupaia, and Tupaia befriended Banks following the transit. On 21 June, Amo visited Cook, and then on 25 June, Pohuetea visited, signifying another chief seeking to ally himself with the British.
Cook and Banks circumnavigated the island from 26 June to 1 July. On the exploration, they met Ahio, chief of Ha apaiano o or Papenoo, Rita, chief of Hitia a, Pahairro, chief of Pueu, Vehiatua, chief of Tautra, Matahiapo, chief of Teahupo o, Tutea, chief of Vaira o, and Moe, chief of Afa Ahiti. In Papara, guided by Tupaia, they investigated the ruins of Mahaiatea marae, an impressive structure containing a stone pyramid or ahu, measuring 44 feet high, 267 feet long and 87 feet wide. Cook and the Endeavour departed Tahiti on 13 July 1769, taking Raiatean navigator Tupaia along for his geographic knowledge of the islands.
Cook returned to Tahiti between 15 August and 1 September 1773, greeted by the chiefs Tai and Puhi, besides the youg ari i Vehiatua II and his stepfather Ti itorea. Cook anchored in Vaitepiha Bay before returning to Point Venus where he met Tu, the paramount chief. Cook picked up two passengers from Tahiti during this trip, Porea and Mai, with Hitihiti later replacing Porea when Cook stopped at Raiatea. Cook took Hitihiti to Tahiti on 22 April, during his return leg. Then, Cook departed Tahiti on 14 May 1774.
During his final visit, Cook returned Mai to Tahiti on 12 Aug. 1777, after Mais long visit in England. Cook also brought two Maori from Queen Charlotte Sound, Te Weherua and Koa. Cook first harbored in Vaitepiha Bay, where he visited Vehiatua II s funeral bier and the prefabricated Spanish mission house. Cook also met Vehiatua III, and inscribed on the back of the Spanish cross, Georgius tertius Rex Annis 1767, 69, 73, 74 & 77, as a counterpoint to Christus Vincit Carolus III imperat 1774 on the front. On 23 Aug., Cook sailed for Matavai Bay, where he met Tu, his father Teu, his mother Tetupaia, his brothers Ari ipaea and Vaetua, and his sisters Ari ipaea-vahine, Tetua-te-ahamai, and Auo. Cook also observed a human sacrifice, taata tapu, at the Utu-ai-mahurau marae, and 49 skulls from previous victims.
On 29 Sept. 1777, Cook sailed for Papetoai Bay on Moorea. Cook met Mahine in an act of friendship on 3 Oct., though he was an enemy of Tu. When a goat kid was stolen on 6 Oct., Cook in a rampage, ordered the burning of houses and canoes until it was returned. Cook sailed for Huahine on 11 Oct., Raiatea on 2 Nov., and Borabora on 7 Dec.
On 26 October 1788, HMS Bounty, under the command of Captain William Bligh, landed in Tahiti with the mission of carrying Tahitian breadfruit trees (Tahitian: uru) to the Caribbean. Sir Joseph Banks, the botanist from James Cooks first expedition, had concluded that this plant would be ideal to feed the African slaves working in the Caribbean plantations at very little cost. The crew remained in Tahiti for about five months, the time needed to transplant the seedlings of the trees. Three weeks after leaving Tahiti, on 28 April 1789, the crew mutinied on the initiative of Fletcher Christian. The mutineers seized the ship and set the captain and most of those members of the crew who remained loyal to him adrift in a ships boat. A group of mutineers then went back to settle in Tahiti.
Although various explorers had refused to get involved in tribal conflicts, the mutineers from the Bounty offered their services as mercenaries and furnished arms to the family which became the Pōmare Dynasty. The chief Tū knew how to use their presence in the harbours favoured by sailors to his advantage. As a result of his alliance with the mutineers, he succeeded in considerably increasing his supremacy over the island of Tahiti.

William Hodges RA 1744 – 1797 was an English painter. He was a member of James Cooks second voyage to the Pacific Ocean, and is best known for the sketches and paintings of locations he visited on that voyage, including Table Bay, Tahiti, Easter Island, and the Antarctic.
Between 1772 and 1775 Hodges accompanied James Cook to the Pacific as the expeditions artist. Many of his sketches and wash paintings were adapted as engravings in the original published edition of Cooks journals from the voyage.
Most of the large-scale landscape oil paintings from his Pacific travels for which Hodges is best known were finished after his return to London; he received a salary from the Admiralty for the purposes of completing them. These paintings depicted a stronger light and shadow than had been usual in European landscape tradition. Contemporary art critics complained that his use of light and colour contrasts gave his paintings a rough and unfinished appearance.
Hodges also produced many valuable portrait sketches of Pacific islanders and scenes from the voyage involving members of the expedition..

Robert Bénard 1734 – 1777 was an 18th-century French engraver.
Specialized in the technique of engraving, Robert Ménard is mainly famous for having supplied a significant amount of plates (at least 1,800) to the Encyclopédie by Diderot & d\'Alembert from 1751.
Later, publisher Charles-Joseph Panckoucke reused many of his productions to illustrate the works of his catalog.

$225.00 USD
More Info
1774 Capt. Cook Antique Print a Portrait of Chief Tynah, Otoo of Tahiti in 1769

1774 Capt. Cook Antique Print a Portrait of Chief Tynah, Otoo of Tahiti in 1769

Description:
This fine original copper-plate engraved antique print a portrait of Chief Tynah (Otoo) of Tahiti Island, met by Captain James Cook during his 1st Voyage of Discovery in 1769, was engraved by Robert Benard - after Sydney Parkinson - and was published in the 1774 French edition of Capt. James Cooks 1st Voyage of Discovery to the South Seas by John Hawkesworth in An Account of the Voyages Undertaken by the Order of His Present Majesty for Making Discoveries in the Southern Hemisphere and Successively Performed by Commodore Byron, Captain Wallis, Captain Carteret, and Captain Cook, in the Dolphin, the Swallow, and the Endeavor, Drawn Up from the Journals Which Were Kept by the Several Commanders, and from the Papers of Joseph Banks. Paris, 1774.

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: -
Colors used: -
General color appearance: -
Paper size: - 10in x 8in (255mm x 205mm)
Plate size: - 9 1/2in x 7 1/4in (240mm x 185mm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (12mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Light soiling in margins
Plate area: - None
Verso: - None

Background: 
Tahiti previously also known as Otaheite is the largest island in the Windward group of French Polynesia. The island is located in the archipelago of the Society Islands in the central Southern Pacific Ocean.
The first European to have visited Tahiti according to existing records was lieutenant Samuel Wallis, who was circumnavigating the globe in HMS Dolphin, sighting the island on 18 June 1767, and eventually harboring in Matavai Bay. This bay was situated on the territory of the chiefdom of Pare-Arue, governed by Tu (Tu-nui-e-a a-i-te-Atua) and his regent Tutaha, and the chiefdom of Ha apape, governed by Amo and his wife Oberea (Purea). Wallis named the island King Georges Island. The first contacts were difficult, since on the 24 and 26 June 1767, Tahitian warriors in canoes showed aggression towards the British, hurling stones from their slings. In retaliation, the British sailors opened fire on the warriors in the canoes and on the hills. In reaction to this powerful counter-attack, the Tahitians laid down peace offerings for the British. Following this episode, Samuel Wallis was able to establish cordial relations with the female chieftain “Oberea “ (Purea) and remained on the island until 27 July 1767.
In July 1768, Captain James Cook was commissioned by the Royal Society and on orders from the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty to observe the transit of Venus across the sun, a phenomenon that would be visible from Tahiti on 3 June 1769. He arrived in Tahitis Matavai Bay, commanding the HMS Endeavour on 12 April 1769. On 14 April, Cook met with Tutaha and Tepau. On 15 April, Cook picked the site for a fortified camp at Point Venus along with Banks, Parkinson, Daniel Solander, to protect Charles Greens observatory. The length of stay enabled them to undertake for the first time real ethnographic and scientific observations of the island. Assisted by the botanist Joseph Banks, and by the artist Sydney Parkinson, Cook gathered valuable information on the fauna and flora, as well as the native society, language and customs, including the proper name of the island, Otaheite. On 28 April, Cook met Purea and Tupaia, and Tupaia befriended Banks following the transit. On 21 June, Amo visited Cook, and then on 25 June, Pohuetea visited, signifying another chief seeking to ally himself with the British.
Cook and Banks circumnavigated the island from 26 June to 1 July. On the exploration, they met Ahio, chief of Ha apaiano o or Papenoo, Rita, chief of Hitia a, Pahairro, chief of Pueu, Vehiatua, chief of Tautra, Matahiapo, chief of Teahupo o, Tutea, chief of Vaira o, and Moe, chief of Afa Ahiti. In Papara, guided by Tupaia, they investigated the ruins of Mahaiatea marae, an impressive structure containing a stone pyramid or ahu, measuring 44 feet high, 267 feet long and 87 feet wide. Cook and the Endeavour departed Tahiti on 13 July 1769, taking Raiatean navigator Tupaia along for his geographic knowledge of the islands.
Cook returned to Tahiti between 15 August and 1 September 1773, greeted by the chiefs Tai and Puhi, besides the youg ari i Vehiatua II and his stepfather Ti itorea. Cook anchored in Vaitepiha Bay before returning to Point Venus where he met Tu, the paramount chief. Cook picked up two passengers from Tahiti during this trip, Porea and Mai, with Hitihiti later replacing Porea when Cook stopped at Raiatea. Cook took Hitihiti to Tahiti on 22 April, during his return leg. Then, Cook departed Tahiti on 14 May 1774.
During his final visit, Cook returned Mai to Tahiti on 12 Aug. 1777, after Mais long visit in England. Cook also brought two Maori from Queen Charlotte Sound, Te Weherua and Koa. Cook first harbored in Vaitepiha Bay, where he visited Vehiatua II s funeral bier and the prefabricated Spanish mission house. Cook also met Vehiatua III, and inscribed on the back of the Spanish cross, Georgius tertius Rex Annis 1767, 69, 73, 74 & 77, as a counterpoint to Christus Vincit Carolus III imperat 1774 on the front. On 23 Aug., Cook sailed for Matavai Bay, where he met Tu, his father Teu, his mother Tetupaia, his brothers Ari ipaea and Vaetua, and his sisters Ari ipaea-vahine, Tetua-te-ahamai, and Auo. Cook also observed a human sacrifice, taata tapu, at the Utu-ai-mahurau marae, and 49 skulls from previous victims.
On 29 Sept. 1777, Cook sailed for Papetoai Bay on Moorea. Cook met Mahine in an act of friendship on 3 Oct., though he was an enemy of Tu. When a goat kid was stolen on 6 Oct., Cook in a rampage, ordered the burning of houses and canoes until it was returned. Cook sailed for Huahine on 11 Oct., Raiatea on 2 Nov., and Borabora on 7 Dec.
On 26 October 1788, HMS Bounty, under the command of Captain William Bligh, landed in Tahiti with the mission of carrying Tahitian breadfruit trees (Tahitian: uru) to the Caribbean. Sir Joseph Banks, the botanist from James Cooks first expedition, had concluded that this plant would be ideal to feed the African slaves working in the Caribbean plantations at very little cost. The crew remained in Tahiti for about five months, the time needed to transplant the seedlings of the trees. Three weeks after leaving Tahiti, on 28 April 1789, the crew mutinied on the initiative of Fletcher Christian. The mutineers seized the ship and set the captain and most of those members of the crew who remained loyal to him adrift in a ships boat. A group of mutineers then went back to settle in Tahiti.
Although various explorers had refused to get involved in tribal conflicts, the mutineers from the Bounty offered their services as mercenaries and furnished arms to the family which became the Pōmare Dynasty. The chief Tū knew how to use their presence in the harbours favoured by sailors to his advantage. As a result of his alliance with the mutineers, he succeeded in considerably increasing his supremacy over the island of Tahiti.

Sydney Parkinson 1745 – 71 was draughtsman to the botanist Sir Joseph Banks on James Cook’s first voyage to the Pacific in 1768. He died of dysentery in 1771, on the homeward voyage.
Parkinson was the first European artist to create drawings of Indigenous Australian, Maori & South Sea peoples, as well as landscapes, from direct observation. Hundreds of his original drawings survive in the British Museum. He is particularly remembered for his plant illustrations which were later used to create the lavish plates for Joseph Banks’ Florilegium.
When the Endeavour returned to England in 1772, a dispute arose between Joseph Banks and Sydney’s brother, Stanfield Parkinson. As his employer, Banks claimed rights to Sydney’s drawings, papers and collections made on the voyage. Stanfield claimed that Sydney had willed them to his family. Banks lent the Parkinson family Sydney’s journal and drawings with instructions that they were not to be published, however Stanfield disregarded this and arranged for A Journal of a voyage to the South Seas to be printed from Sydney’s account of the voyage.
Banks managed to suppress Stanfield’s publication until the official account of the voyage, edited by John Hawkesworth, appeared. In return for Parkinson’s papers, Banks paid Stanfield Parkinson 500 pounds for balance of wages due to Sydney, but the dispute did not end there. Stanfield further accused Banks of retaining items collected by Sydney which were intended for his relatives. Stanfield Parkinson was declared insane soon after the publication of Sydney Parkinson’s Journal and died in an asylum.

John Hawkesworth An English writer and journalist, Hawkesworth was commissioned by the British Admiralty to edit for publication the narratives of its officers’ circumnavigations. He was given full access to the journals of the commanders and the freedom to adapt and re-tell them in the first person. Cook was already on his way back from his second Pacific voyage, temporarily docked at Cape Town (South Africa), when he first saw the published volumes: he was mortified and furious to find that Hawkesworth claimed in the introduction that Cook had seen and blessed (with slight corrections) the resulting manuscript. (In his defense, Hawkesworth also had been a victim of misunderstanding.) Cook had trouble recognizing himself. Moreover, the work was full of errors and commentary introduced by Hawkesworth and, in Cook’s view, too full of Banks, who had promoted himself and the publication. Still, the work was popular; the first edition sold out in several months.

Robert Bénard 1734 – 1777 was an 18th-century French engraver.
Specialized in the technique of engraving, Robert Ménard is mainly famous for having supplied a significant amount of plates (at least 1,800) to the Encyclopédie by Diderot & d\'Alembert from 1751.
Later, publisher Charles-Joseph Panckoucke reused many of his productions to illustrate the works of his catalog.

$125.00 USD
More Info
1780 R. Bonne Original Antique Map of Caucasus Georgia, Iran, Armenia, Pakistan

1780 R. Bonne Original Antique Map of Caucasus Georgia, Iran, Armenia, Pakistan

Description:
This original copper-plate engraved map was published in 1780 edition of Atllas des toutes les parties connues du globe terrestre by Rigobert Bonne & Guillaume Raynal.

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: -
Colors used: -
General color appearance: -
Paper size: - 15in x 10in (380mm x 255mm)
Plate size: - 13in x 9in (330mm x 230mm)
Margins: - Min 1in (25mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - None
Verso: - None

$125.00 USD
More Info
1589 Gerard Mercator Original 1st Ed. Antique Map of German State of Hesse

1589 Gerard Mercator Original 1st Ed. Antique Map of German State of Hesse

Description:
This fine original and extremely scarce 1st edition antique map of the German State of Hesse or Hessia in central Germany was published by Gerard Mercator.
These original maps by Gerard Mercator from his original 16th century atlas are rare and hard to find. These original map are identifiable by the design on the verso of the map without the long description, scroll design and were engraved prior to the sale of Mercators plates to Hondius in the first decade of the 17th century.

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: - Early
Colors used: - Yellow, green, blue, pink
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 22 1/2in x 19in (570mm x 485mm)
Plate size: - 16 1/4in x 13 1/2in (415mm x 345mm)
Margins: - Min 1in (25mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - Light browning along centerfold, light age toning
Verso: - Small repair to top centerfold

Background: 
As early as the Paleolithic period, the Central Hessian region was inhabited. Due to the favorable climate of the location, people lived there about 50,000 years ago during the last glacial period, as burial sites show from this era. Finds of paleolitical tools in southern Hesse in Rüsselsheim suggest Pleistocene hunters about 13,000 years ago. The Züschen tomb (German: Steinkammergrab von Züschen, sometimes also Lohne-Züschen) is a prehistoric burial monument, located between Lohne and Züschen, near Fritzlar, Hesse, Germany. Classified as a gallery grave or a Hessian-Westphalian stone cist (hessisch-westfälische Steinkiste), it is one of the most important megalithic monuments in Central Europe. Dating to the late fourth millennium BC (and possibly remaining in use until the early third), it belongs to the Late Neolithic Wartberg culture.
An early Celtic presence in what is now Hesse is indicated by a mid-fifth-century BC La Tène-style burial uncovered at Glauberg. The region was later settled by the Germanic Chatti tribe around the first century BC, and the name Hesse is a continuation of that tribal name.
The ancient Romans had a military camp in Dorlar, and in Waldgirmes directly on the eastern outskirts of Wetzlar was a civil settlement under construction. Presumably, the provincial government for the occupied territories of the right bank of Germania was planned at this location. The governor of Germania, at least temporarily, likely had resided here. The settlement appears to have been abandoned by the Romans after the devastating Battle of the Teutoburg Forest failed in the year 9 AD. The Chatti were also involved in the Revolt of the Batavi in 69 AD.
Hessia, from the early seventh century on, served as a buffer between areas dominated by the Saxons (to the north) and the Franks, who brought the area to the south under their control in the early sixth century and occupied Thuringia (to the east) in 531. Hessia occupies the northwestern part of the modern German state of Hesse; its borders were not clearly delineated. Its geographic center is Fritzlar; it extends in the southeast to Hersfeld on the Fulda River, in the north to past Kassel and up to the rivers Diemel and Weser. To the west, it occupies the valleys of the Rivers Eder and Lahn (the latter until it turns south). It measured roughly 90 kilometers north-south, and 80 north-west.
The area around Fritzlar shows evidence of significant pagan belief from the first century on. Geismar was a particular focus of such activity; it was continuously occupied from the Roman period on, with a settlement from the Roman period, which itself had a predecessor from the fifth century BC. Excavations have produced a horse burial and bronze artifacts. A possible religious cult may have centered on a natural spring in Geismar, called Heilgenbron; the name \"Geismar\" (possibly \"energetic pool\") itself may be derived from that spring. The village of Maden, Gudensberg (de), now a part of Gudensberg near Fritzlar and less than ten miles from Geismar, was likely an ancient religious center; the basalt outcrop of Gudensberg is named for Wodan, and a two-meter tall quartz megalith called the Wotanstein is in the center of the village.
By 650, the Franks were establishing themselves as overlords, which is suggested by archeological evidence of burials, and were building fortifications in various places, including Christenberg. By 690, they were taking direct control over Hessia, apparently to counteract expansion by the Saxons, who built fortifications in Gaulskopf and Eresburg across the River Diemel, the northern boundary of Hessia. The Büraburg (which already had a Frankish settlement in the sixth century) was one of the places the Franks fortified to resist the Saxon pressure, and according to John-Henry Clay, the Büraburg was \"probably the largest man-made construction seen in Hessia for at least seven hundred years\". Walls and trenches totaling one kilometer in length were made, and they enclosed \"8 hectares of a spur that offered a commanding view over Fritzlar and the densely populated heart of Hessia\".
Following Saxon incursions into Chattish territory in the seventh century, two gaue had been established—a Frankish one, comprising an area around Fritzlar and Kassel, and a Saxon one. In the 9th century, the Saxon Hessengau also came under the rule of the Franconians. In the 12th, century it was passed to Thuringia.
In the War of the Thuringian Succession (1247–1264), Hesse gained its independence and became a Landgraviate within the Holy Roman Empire. It shortly rose to primary importance under Landgrave Philip the Magnanimous, who was one of the leaders of German Protestantism. After Philip\'s death in 1567, the territory was divided among his four sons from his first marriage (Philip was a bigamist) into four lines: Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel), Hesse-Darmstadt, Hesse-Rheinfels, and the also previously existing Hesse-Marburg. As the latter two lines died out quite soon (1583 and 1605, respectively), Hesse-Kassel and Hesse-Darmstadt were the two core states within the Hessian lands. Several collateral lines split off during the centuries, such as in 1622, when Hesse-Homburg split off from Hesse-Darmstadt. In the late 16th century, Kassel adopted Calvinism, while Darmstadt remained Lutheran and subsequently the two lines often found themselves on different sides of a conflict, most notably in the disputes over Hesse-Marburg and in the Thirty Years\' War, when Darmstadt fought on the side of the Emperor, while Kassel sided with Sweden and France.
The Landgrave Frederick II (1720–1785) ruled as a benevolent despot, 1760–1785. He combined Enlightenment ideas with Christian values, cameralist plans for central control of the economy, and a militaristic approach toward diplomacy. He funded the depleted treasury of the poor nation by renting out 19,000 soldiers in complete military formations to Great Britain to fight in North America during the American Revolutionary War, 1776–1783. These soldiers, commonly known as Hessians, fought under the British flag. The British used the Hessians in several conflicts, including in the Irish Rebellion of 1798. For further revenue, the soldiers were rented out elsewhere, as well. Most were conscripted, with their pay going to the Landgrave.

$375.00 USD
More Info
1837 John Dower Original Antique Map of Van Diemens Land - Tasmania, Australia

1837 John Dower Original Antique Map of Van Diemens Land - Tasmania, Australia

Description:
This fine steel-plate engraved original hand coloured antique map of Van Diemens Land or Tasmania by John Dower was published by Orr & Smith, London in 1837. (Ref Tooley M&B)

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: - Original
Colors used: - Yellow
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 12in x 9 1/2in (305mm x 240mm)
Plate size: - 12in x 9 1/2in (305mm x 240mm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (12mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - Light age toning along centerfold
Verso: - None

Background: 
Van Diemens Land—which thus far had existed as a territory within the colony of New South Wales—was proclaimed a separate colony, with its own judicial establishment and Legislative Council, on 3 December 1825. Transportation to the island ceased in 1853 and the colony was renamed Tasmania in 1856, partly to differentiate the burgeoning society of free settlers from the island\'s convict past.
A convict ploughing team breaking up new ground at the farm at Port Arthur.
The Legislative Council of Van Diemens Land drafted a new constitution which it passed in 1854. The following year the Privy Council approved the colony changing its name from Van Diemens Land to Tasmania, and in 1856 the newly elected bicameral parliament sat for the first time, establishing Tasmania as a self-governing colony of the British Empire.
The colony suffered from economic fluctuations, but for the most part was prosperous, experiencing steady growth. With few external threats and strong trade links with the Empire, Tasmania enjoyed many fruitful periods in the late 19th century, becoming a world-centre of shipbuilding. It raised a local defence force that eventually played a significant role in the Second Boer War in South Africa, and Tasmanian soldiers in that conflict won the first two Victoria Crosses awarded to Australians.
In 1901 the Colony of Tasmania united with the five other Australian colonies to form the Commonwealth of Australia. Tasmanians voted in favour of federation with the largest majority of all the Australian colonies.

$125.00 USD
More Info
1628 Henricus Hondius Original Antique Map of South America w/ inset Cusco, Peru

1628 Henricus Hondius Original Antique Map of South America w/ inset Cusco, Peru

Description: 
This superb, original antique hand coloured folio map of South America, was engraved by Jodocus Hondius & published by his son Henricus for the continuation of Gerard Mercators 1628 French edition of Atlas.
This map is in superb condition with beautiful hand colouring, a deep heavy imprint denoting an early pressing on clean, heavy paper. Original margins, one of the best I have seen for sometime.

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: - Early
Colors used: - Yellow, green, blue, pink
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 23in x 18 3/4in (585mm x 475mm)
Plate size: - 19 1/2in x 14 1/4in (495mm x 363mm)
Margins: - Min 1in (25mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - 4 very small worm holes
Verso: - None

Background: 
The interior of the map is dominated by the large mythical lake Parime Lacus straddling the equator below Venezuela along with an interesting & mythical continental river system. The huge Rio de la Plata river flows south from the conjectural Eupana Lacus in Brazil, while the R. Grande flows north from the same lake, ostensibly making Brazil an island.
The Strait of Magellan is represented, but Tierra del Fuego (Fogo) is named as part of the mythical Great Southern Land instead of an island.
The map is beautifully engraved with a stippled wave pattern Pacific & Atlantic Oceans, filled with Spanish & English ships, sea monsters and native canoe. The continent is flanked by two elaborate Baroque cartouches; title to the right and a large inset plan of the Capital of the Ancient Incan Empire, Cuzco. A sole representation of the conquered Native Americans is engraved as a lone Indian with a bow and arrow in the interior of Patgonia.

Between 1452 and 1493, a series of papal bulls (Dum Diversas, Romanus Pontifex, and Inter caetera) paved the way for the European colonization and Catholic missions in the New World. These authorized the European Christian nations to \"take possession\" of non-Christian lands and encouraged subduing and converting the non-Christian people of Africa and the Americas.
In 1494, Portugal and Spain, the two great maritime powers of that time, signed the Treaty of Tordesillas in the expectation of new lands being discovered in the west. Through the treaty they agreed that all the land outside Europe should be an exclusive duopoly between the two countries. The treaty established an imaginary line along a north-south meridian 370 leagues west of Cape Verde Islands, roughly 46° 37\' W. In terms of the treaty, all land to the west of the line (which is now known to include most of the South American soil), would belong to Spain, and all land to the east, to Portugal. Because accurate measurements of longitude were not possible at that time, the line was not strictly enforced, resulting in a Portuguese expansion of Brazil across the meridian.
In 1498, during his third voyage to the Americas, Christopher Columbus sailed near the Orinoco Delta and then landed in the Gulf of Paria (Actual Venezuela). Amazed by the great offshore current of freshwater which deflected his course eastward, Columbus expressed in his moving letter to Isabella I and Ferdinand II that he must have reached heaven on Earth (terrestrial paradise):
Great signs are these of the Terrestrial Paradise, for the site conforms to the opinion of the holy and wise theologians whom I have mentioned. And likewise, the [other] signs conform very well, for I have never read or heard of such a large quantity of fresh water being inside and in such close proximity to salt water; the very mild temperateness also corroborates this; and if the water of which I speak does not proceed from Paradise then it is an even greater marvel, because I do not believe such a large and deep river has ever been known to exist in this world.
Beginning in 1499, the people and natural resources of South America were repeatedly exploited by foreign conquistadors, first from Spain and later from Portugal. These competing colonial nations claimed the land and resources as their own and divided it into colonies.
European diseases (smallpox, influenza, measles and typhus) to which the native populations had no resistance were the overwhelming cause of the depopulation of the Native American population. Cruel systems of forced labor (such as encomiendas and mining industry\'s mita) under Spanish control also contributed to depopulation. Lower bound estimates speak of a decline in the population of around 20–50 per cent, whereas high estimates arrive at 90 per cent.[42] Following this, African slaves, who had developed immunity to these diseases, were quickly brought in to replace them.
The Spaniards were committed to converting their American subjects to Christianity and were quick to purge any native cultural practices that hindered this end. However, most initial attempts at this were only partially successful; American groups simply blended Catholicism with their traditional beliefs. The Spaniards did not impose their language to the degree they did their religion. In fact, the missionary work of the Roman Catholic Church in Quechua, Nahuatl, and Guarani actually contributed to the expansion of these American languages, equipping them with writing systems.
Eventually the natives and the Spaniards interbred, forming a Mestizo class. Mestizos and the Native Americans were often forced to pay unfair taxes to the Spanish government (although all subjects paid taxes) and were punished harshly for disobeying their laws. Many native artworks were considered pagan idols and destroyed by Spanish explorers. This included a great number of gold and silver sculptures, which were melted down before transport to Europe.
In 1616, the Dutch, attracted by the legend of El Dorado, founded a fort in Guayana and established three colonies: Demerara, Berbice, and Essequibo.
In 1624 France attempted to settle in the area of modern-day French Guiana, but was forced to abandon it in the face of hostility from the Portuguese, who viewed it as a violation of the Treaty of Tordesillas. However French settlers returned in 1630 and in 1643 managed to establish a settlement at Cayenne along with some small-scale plantations.
Since the sixteenth century there were some movements of discontent to Spanish and Portuguese colonial system. Among these movements, the most famous being that of the Maroons, slaves who escaped their masters and in the shelter of the forest communities organized free communities. Attempts to subject them by the royal army was unsuccessful, because the Maroons had learned to master the South American jungles. In a royal decree of 1713, the king gave legality to the first free population of the continent: Palenque de San Basilio in Colombia today, led by Benkos Bioho. Brazil saw the formation of a genuine African kingdom on their soil, with the Quilombo of Palmares.
Between 1721 and 1735, the Revolt of the Comuneros of Paraguay arose, because of clashes between the Paraguayan settlers and the Jesuits, who ran the large and prosperous Jesuit Reductions and controlled a large number of Christianized Indians.
Between 1742 and 1756, was the insurrection of Juan Santos Atahualpa in the central jungle of Peru. In 1780, the Viceroyalty of Peru was met with the insurrection of curaca Condorcanqui or Tupac Amaru II, which would be continued by Tupac Catari in Upper Peru.
In 1763, the African Cuffy led a revolt in Guyana which was bloodily suppressed by the Dutch. In 1781, the Revolt of the Comuneros (New Granada), an insurrection of the villagers in the Viceroyalty of New Granada, was a popular revolution that united indigenous people and mestizos. The villagers tried to be the colonial power and despite the capitulation were signed, the Viceroy Manuel Antonio Flores did not comply, and instead ran to the main leaders José Antonio Galán. In 1796, Essequibo (colony) of the Dutch was taken by the British, who had previously begun a massive introduction of slaves.
During the eighteenth century, the figure of the priest, mathematician and botanist José Celestino Mutis (1732–1808), was delegated by the Viceroy Antonio Caballero y Gongora to conduct an inventory of the nature of the Nueva Granada, which became known as the Botanical Expedition, which classified plants, wildlife and founded the first astronomical observatory in the city of Santa Fé de Bogotá.
On August 15, 1801, the Prussian scientist Alexander von Humboldt reached Fontibón where Mutis, and began his expedition to New Granada, Quito. The meeting between the two scholars are considered the brightest spot of the botanical expedition. Humboldt also visited Venezuela, Mexico, United States, Chile, and Peru. Through his observations of temperature differences between the Pacific Ocean between Chile and Peru in different periods of the year, he discovered cold currents moving from south to north up the coast of Peru, which was named the Humboldt Current in his honour.
Between 1806 and 1807, British military forces tried to invade the area of the Rio de la Plata, at the command of Home Riggs Popham and William Carr Beresford, and John Whitelocke. The invasions were repelled, but powerfully affected the Spanish authority

$2,250.00 USD
More Info
1851 John Tallis Antique map of Tasmania or Van Diemens Land, Australia

1851 John Tallis Antique map of Tasmania or Van Diemens Land, Australia

Description:
This beautifully hand coloured original antique map of Van Diemens Land, Tasmania was engraved by John Rapkin and published by John Tallis in 1851.

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - off white
Age of map color: - Original & later 
Colors used: - Yellow, green, red, brown.
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 14 1/2in x 10 1/2in (370mm x 270mm)
Plate size: - 14 1/2in x 10 1/2in (370mm x 270mm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (10mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Light age toning
Plate area: - None
Verso: - None

Background:
The firm of Tallis & Company flourished from 1835 to 1860 with varying imprints. Their illustrated Atlas of 1850-51 was one of the last decorative atlases, all the maps being engraved on steel and all adorned with small vignettes. (Ref: Tooley; M&B)

$375.00 USD
More Info
1671 Jacob Van Meurs Rare Original Antique Map of America - Island of California

1671 Jacob Van Meurs Rare Original Antique Map of America - Island of California

  • Title : Novissima et Accuratissima Totius Americae Descriptio per Jacobum Meursium
  • Date : 1671
  • Size: 22in x 19in (560mm x 485mm)
  • Ref #:  61157
  • Condition: (A) Very Good Condition

Description: This uncommon and rare original antique map of America and the Pacific, including parts of New Zealand, was published in Amsterdam by Jacob Van Meurs in 1671 for the German edition of Arnold Montanus' ground breaking publication "America". (Ref: Burden, Tooley, Koeman)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - off white
Age of map color: - Early
Colors used: - Green, red, orange, yellow, blue
General color appearance: - Authentic 
Paper size: - 22in x 19in (560mm x 485mm)
Plate size: - 21 3/4in x 17 1/2in (550mm x 445mm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (12mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Light soiling
Plate area: - Folds as issued, light separation along folds, no loss
Verso: - Professionally backed onto Japanese archival rice paper

Background: Unlike the Dutch edition of this map (by Van Schaegen) and English edition (by John Ogilby), which copied the De Wit / Visscher America map, Van Meurs creates a highly decorative new plate for the German edition of Montanus' America. The plate was later acquired by Pierre Vander Aa and re-issued bearing Vander Aa's name circa 1714.
 The map shows California as an Island on the first Sanson Projection, showing a single large Great Lake (open at the west), a curious north-easterly coastline north of the Island of California and a geographically misaligned South America, with tribal vignettes in Brazil and wild life in North America. The map predates La Salle's information on the interior of North America, but includes excellent detail on Canada and the East Coast of North America, noting the Dutch Possessions, the Iroquois regions, N. Anglia, New Amsterdam, the Cheaspeak, Plymouth, and many Indian Place names.
 Meurs's map is based upon Nicholas Visscher's map of 1658, in that it includes the coastline New Zealand and the early Sanson model for California, and only shows one of the Great Lakes, updated from Visscher's edition. Visscher in turn drew his information from Joan Blaeu's wall map of the World, published in 1648.
 The map is most notable for its elaborate allegorical cartouches. One of the most outstanding features of this map are the beautifully engraved decorative cartouches that include numerous vignettes of wildlife, American Indians, sailing ships and battles. The title is surrounded by Native Americans trading with Europeans and in the North Pacific is a lavish scene of Neptune and his consort in a chariot surrounded by his entourage and putti. The map was to be included in Montanus book of America and so has folds as issued. (Ref: Burden, Tooley, Koeman)

$2,999.00 USD
More Info
1644 Jan Jansson & Henricus Hondius Antique Map of Italy, Sardinia, Corsica

1644 Jan Jansson & Henricus Hondius Antique Map of Italy, Sardinia, Corsica

Description:
This fine beautifully hand coloured original antique map of Italy, Sicily, Sardinia & the Adriatic Coast by Jan Jansson was published in the 1644 German edition of Mercator's atlas by Jansson and Hondius.
 This map is richly embellished with cartouches, sailing vessels, sea monsters and a wonderful rendering of Neptune and his mate. The image of the two mer-people embracing with bare chests is a hold over from the controversial images present in the first edition of Ortelius' modern map of Italy. Includes portraits of Romulus and Remus in the lower right corner. In subsequent years, Jansson would replace Hondius's name with his own in the bottom left corner.

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - off white
Age of map color: - Original
Colors used: - Green, red, orange, yellow, blue
General color appearance: - Authentic 
Paper size: - 21 1/2in x 19in (545mm x 490mm)
Plate size: - 19 1/2in x 14 1/2in (500mm x 360mm)
Margins: - Min 1in (25mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Centrefold re-joined
Plate area: - Centrefold re-joined
Verso: - Centrefold re-joined

Background: Since classical times the countries bordering the enclosed waters of the Mediterranean had been well versed in the use of maps and sea charts and in Italy, more than anywhere else, the traditional knowledge was kept alive during the many hundreds of years following the collapse of the Roman Empire. By the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries the seamen of Venice, Genoa and Amalfi traded to far countries, from the Black Sea ports and the coasts of Palestine and Egypt in the East to Flanders and the southern coasts of England and Ireland in the West, their voyages guided by portulan charts and the use of the newly invented compass. For a time Italian supremacy in cartography passed to Aragon and the Catalan map makers based on Majorca, but by the year 1400 the power and wealth of the city states of Venice, Genoa, Florence and Milan surpassed any in Europe. Florence, especially, under the rule of the Medici family, became not only a great trading and financial centre but also the focal point of the rediscovery of the arts and learning of the ancient world. In this milieu a number of manuscript world maps were produced, of which one by Fra Mauro (c. 1459) is the most notable, but the event of the greatest importance in the history of cartography occurred in the year 1400 when a Florentine, Palla Strozzi, brought from Constantinople a Greek manuscript copy of Claudius Ptolemy'sGeographia, which, 1,250 years after its compilation, came as a revelation to scholars in Western Europe. In the following fifty years or so manuscript copies, translated into Latin and other languages, became available in limited numbers but the invention of movable-type printing transformed the scene: the first copy without maps being printed in 1475 followed by many with copper-engraved maps, at Bologna in 1477, Rome 1478, 1490, 1507 and 1508, and Florence 1482.
About the year 1485 the first book of sea charts, compiled by Bartolommeo dalli Sonetti, was printed in Venice and in the first part of the sixteenth century a number of world maps were published, among them one compiled in 1506 by Giovanni Contarini, engraved by Francesco Rosselli, which was the first printed map to show the discoveries in the New World. In the following years there were many attractive and unusual maps of Islands (Isolano) by Bordone, Camocio and Porcacchi, but more important was the work of Giacomo (Jacopo) Gastaldi, a native of Piedmont who started life as an engineer in the service of the Venetian Republic before turning to cartography as a profession. His maps, produced in great variety and quantity, were beautifully drawn copperplate engravings and his style and techniques were widely copied by his contemporaries. From about 1550 to 1580 many of Gastaldi's maps appeared in the collections of maps known as Lafreri 'atlases', a term applied to groups of maps by different cartographers brought together in one binding. As the contents of such collections varied considerably they were no doubt assembled at the special request of wealthy patrons and are now very rare indeed.
About this time, for a variety of historical and commercial reasons, Italy's position as the leading trading and financial nation rapidly declined and with it her superiority in cartography was lost to the vigorous new states in the Low Countries. That is not to say, of course, that Italian skills as map makers were lost entirely for it was not until 1620 that the first printed maps of Italy by an Italian, Giovanni Magini, appeared, and much later in the century there were fine maps by Giacomo de Rossi and Vincenzo Coronelli, the latter leading a revival of interest in cartography at the end of the century. Coronelli was also famous for the construction of magnificent large-size globes and for the foundation in Venice in 1680 of the first geographical society.
In the eighteenth century the best-known names are Antonio Zatta, Rizzi-Zannoni and Giovanni Cassini.
We ought to mention the work of Baptista Boazio who drew a series of maps in A Summarie and True Discourse of Sir Francis Drake's West Indian Voyage, published in 1588-89, and who is especially noted for a very fine map of Ireland printed in 1599 which was incorporated in the later editions of the Ortelius atlases. It is perhaps appropriate also to refer to two English map makers who spent many years in exile in Italy: the first, George Lily, famous for the splendid map of the British Isles issued in Rome in 1546, and the second, Robert Dudley, who exactly one hundred years later was responsible for the finest sea atlas of the day, Dell' Arcano del Mare,published in Florence. Both of these are described in greater detail elsewhere in this handbook. (Ref: Tooley, Koeman)

$1,250.00 USD
More Info
1639 Hondius & Mercator Antique Map Mughal Empire Northern India, Tibet, Nepal

1639 Hondius & Mercator Antique Map Mughal Empire Northern India, Tibet, Nepal

Description: 
This fine, beautifully hand coloured original  antique and very important map of Mughal Empire of Northern India, Tibet, Nepal and central Asia by Henricus Hondius was published in the 1639 French edition of Gerardi Mercators Atlantis Novi Atlas.

Background: This map centers on the Mughal capital of Agra, with the map covering, roughly, from Kabul to Orissa and Deccan, and from Persia to Bengal. It depicts the empire prior to the conquest of Orissa and Deccan, most likely during the reign of Shah Jahan, of Taj Mahal fame. Relief is shown pictorially. An elaborate title cartouche appears in the upper left quadrant. The map is embellished with images of tigers, elephants, caravans, and galleons.
There is much of interest. In particular, is the map detailed breakdown of the caravan network between Gujarat and Agra, between Agra and the desert outpost of Jaisalmer, and between Agra and the Silk Road center of Kabul. While the map does not show roads, for surely none as such existed at the time, it does show the network of towns, waystations and caravanserai built to support the bustling trade system.
The apocryphal Lake of Chiamay appears just north of the Bay of Bengal as the source of four important Southeast Asian river systems including the Irrawaddy, the Dharla, the Chao Phraya, and the Brahmaputra. The curious Lake of Chiamay (also called Chiam-may or Chian-may), roughly located in the area of Assam but sometimes as far north as Tibet and China, began to appear in maps of this region as early as the 16th century and persisted well into the mid 18th century. Its origins are unknown but may originate in a lost 16th century geography prepared by the Portuguese scholar Jao de Barros. It was speculated to be the source of five important Southeast Asian River systems and was mentioned in the journals of Sven Hedin. There are even records that the King of Siam led an invasionary force to take control of the lake in the 16th century. Nonetheless, the theory of Lake Chiamay was ultimately disproved and it disappeared from maps entirely by the 1760s.
There are two states of this map, the present example being the first state, first issued in 1638 by Henricus Hondius, and the second state a few years later in 1641 by Jan Jannson. With the exception of the signature imprint, the plates are identical.  (Ref: Koeman; M&B)

Condition Report:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy & stable
Paper color: - off white
Age of map color: - Original
Colors used: - Yellow, pink, green
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 23in x 19in (585mm x 485mm)
Plate size: - 19 3/4in x 14 1/2in (500mm x 350mm)
Margins: - Min 1in (25mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Bottom centerfold re-joined.
Plate area: - Light colour offset
Verso: - Bottom centerfold re-joined

$850.00 USD
More Info
1770 JN Bellin Very Large Original Antique World Map on Mercators Projection

1770 JN Bellin Very Large Original Antique World Map on Mercators Projection

  • Title : Essay d' une Carte Reduite Contenant les parties connuees Du Globe Terrestre
  • Date : 1770
  • Size: 32in x 23in (815mm x 585mm)
  • Ref #:  61143
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition

Description: 
This very large beautifully hand coloured original antique World Map on Mercator's Projection was first engraved in 1748 by Jacques Nicolas Bellin, dated in the title, and was updated to 1770 showing the discoveries by Captain James Cook in Australia & New Zealand in 1769-1770.

Background: The map presents the entire world on Mercator Projection based on a Paris (L’Isle de Fer) meridian, exhibiting post-Cook geography throughout, but most specifically in the Pacific and along the northwest coast of America.
North America to the west of the Mississippi is vaguely rendered according to 16th century expeditions into the region by Coronado, La Salle, De Soto, and others.
Bellin identifies the semi-mythical civilizations of Quivira and Teguayo, both associated with legends of the Seven Cities of Gold, in what is modern day Utah, California, and Nevada. Along the western coast the strait discovered by Martin Aguilar is noted. Further north still the River of the West (Fl. de l’Ouest) extends from the west coast to the Lake of the Woods (Lac de Bois) and thence via additional waterways to the Great Lakes and the Atlantic. The River of the West appeared in many 18th century maps of the Americas and is reflective of French hopes for a water route from their colonies in Canada and Louisiana to the Pacific. Still further north the coastline becomes extremely vague, in places vanishing altogether. The Aleutians are vaguely rendered according to various sightings by Vitus Jonassen Bering and Aleksei Chirikov in the 1740s and identified as the “Archipel de Nord”.
In the Pacific, various Polynesian Island groups are noted though many are slightly or significantly misplaced. The Solomon Islands are vastly oversized referencing the early 17th claims of Quiros. The other lands discovered and erroneously mapped by Quiros in 1606 and Davis in 1686 during their search of the great southern continent are also noted. Hawaii, as yet undiscovered, is absent. New Zealand is rendered twice though is accurate in its form and position. Australia, here labeled “Nouvelle Holland”, has part of its southern coastline ghosted in and Van Diemen’s Land (Tasmania) is attached to the mainland. The southern coast of New Guinea is similarly ghosted in, suggesting its unexplored state.
It is of interest that there is a common misconception regarding this map that suggests the first edition was dated 1748. There are editions with a printed date of 1748, but these are actually later editions. The 1748 date is a printing error in which “8” and “4” are transposed, the actual date of publication being 1784. The first edition of this map is the 1778 example shown here. 
(Ref: Tooley; M&B)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - off white
Age of map color: - Original
Colors used: - Yellow, green, red, brown.
General color appearance: - Authentic and fresh
Paper size: - 32in x 23in (815mm x 585mm)
Plate size: - 28 1/2n x 20 1/2in (725mm x 520mm)
Margins: - Min 1in (25mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - Small worm hole restoration adjacent to SW Africa
Verso: - Folds as issued

$1,750.00 USD
More Info
1493 Hartmann Schedel Antique Incunable Folio Leaf of Views of England & Spain

1493 Hartmann Schedel Antique Incunable Folio Leaf of Views of England & Spain

Description: 
This beautifully hand coloured original antique decorative incunable* folio leaf with views a representation of England & Spain on both sides by Hartmann Schedel was published the famous Liber chronicarum or Nuremberg Chronicle, German edition 1493, the year that Columbus returned to Europe after discovering America. Page number CCLXXXIIII. One of only two views from Liber chronicarum related to the British Isles.
The woodblock cutter was Michael Wolgemut, the well-known teacher of Albrecht Dürer, and his stepson Wilhelm Pleydenwurff. Wohlgemut was Albrecht Dürer's tutor between 1486-90. Since the young Dürer was active in Wohlgemut's printer shop during the time the woodblock for the Nuremberg Chronicle have produced, he may also have collaborated, since some of the cuts bear a remarkably close resemblance to his Apocalypse illustrations.
*An incunable, or sometimes incunabulum (plural incunables or incunabula, respectively), is a book, pamphlet, or broadside (such as the Almanach cracoviense ad annum 1474) that was printed—not handwritten—before the year 1501 in Europe. "Incunable" is the anglicised singular form of "incunabula", Latin for "swaddling clothes" or "cradle",which can refer to "the earliest stages or first traces in the development of anything." A former term for "incunable" is "fifteener", referring to the 15th century.

Background: The Nuremberg Chronicle is an illustrated biblical paraphrase and world history that follows the story of human history related in the Bible; it includes the histories of a number of important Western cities. Written in Latin by Hartmann Schedel, with a version in German, translation by Georg Alt, it appeared in 1493. It is one of the best-documented early printed books—an incunabulum—and one of the first to successfully integrate illustrations and text.
Latin scholars refer to it as Liber Chronicarum (Book of Chronicles) as this phrase appears in the index introduction of the Latin edition. English-speakers have long referred to it as the Nuremberg Chronicle after the city in which it was published. German-speakers refer to it as Die Schedelsche Weltchronik (Schedel's World History) in honour of its author.
Two Nuremberg merchants, Sebald Schreyer (1446–1503) and his son-in-law, Sebastian Kammermeister (1446–1520), commissioned the Latin version of the chronicle. They also commissioned George Alt (1450–1510), a scribe at the Nuremberg treasury, to translate the work into German. Both Latin and German editions were printed by Anton Koberger, in Nuremberg. The contracts were recorded by scribes, bound into volumes, and deposited in the Nuremberg City Archives. The first contract, from December, 1491, established the relationship between the illustrators and the patrons. Wolgemut and Pleydenwurff, the painters, were to provide the layout of the chronicle, to oversee the production of the woodcuts, and to guard the designs against piracy. The patrons agreed to advance 1000 gulden for paper, printing costs, and the distribution and sale of the book. A second contract, between the patrons and the printer, was executed in March, 1492. It stipulated conditions for acquiring the paper and managing the printing. The blocks and the archetype were to be returned to the patrons once the printing was completed.
The author of the text, Hartmann Schedel, was a medical doctor, humanist and book collector. He earned a doctorate in medicine in Padua in 1466, then settled in Nuremberg to practice medicine and collect books. According to an inventory done in 1498, Schedel's personal library contained 370 manuscripts and 670 printed books. The author used passages from the classical and medieval works in this collection to compose the text of Chronicle. He borrowed most frequently from another humanist chronicle, Supplementum Chronicarum, by Jacob Philip Foresti of Bergamo. It has been estimated that about 90% of the text is pieced together from works on humanities, science, philosophy, and theology, while about 10% of the chronicle is Schedel's original composition.
Nuremberg was one of the largest cities in the Holy Roman Empire in the 1490s, with a population of between 45,000 and 50,000. Thirty-five patrician families comprised the City Council. The Council controlled all aspects of printing and craft activities, including the size of each profession and the quality, quantity and type of goods produced. Although dominated by a conservative aristocracy, Nuremberg was a center of northern humanism. Anton Koberger, printer of the Nuremberg Chronicle, printed the first humanist book in Nuremberg in 1472. Sebald Shreyer, one of the patrons of the chronicle, commissioned paintings from classical mythology for the grand salon of his house. Hartmann Schedel, author of the chronicle, was an avid collector of both Italian Renaissance and German humanist works. Hieronymus Münzer, who assisted Schedel in writing the chronicle's chapter on geography, was among this group, as were Albrecht Dürer and Johann and Willibald Pirckheimer.
The Chronicle was first published in Latin on 12 July 1493 in the city of Nuremberg. This was quickly followed by a German translation on 23 December 1493. An estimated 1400 to 1500 Latin and 700 to 1000 German copies were published. A document from 1509 records that 539 Latin versions and 60 German versions had not been sold. Approximately 400 Latin and 300 German copies survived into the twenty-first century. The larger illustrations were also sold separately as prints, often hand-coloured in watercolour. Many copies of the book are also coloured, with varying degrees of skill; there were specialist shops for this. The colouring on some examples has been added much later, and some copies have been broken up for sale as decorative prints.
The publisher and printer was Anton Koberger, the godfather of Albrecht Dürer, who in the year of Dürer's birth in 1471 ceased goldsmithing to become a printer and publisher. He quickly became the most successful publisher in Germany, eventually owning 24 printing presses and having many offices in Germany and abroad, from Lyon to Buda. (Ref Tooley M&B)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - White
Age of map color: - Early
Colors used: - Red, green, blue, brown
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 16 1/2in x 11in (420mm x 280mm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (12mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Soiling, restoration of left margin, not affecting the imag
Plate area: - Several small worm holes, soiling
Verso: - Soiling

$650.00 USD
More Info
1639 Mercator Hondius Large Antique Map of Basque Region of Spain, Bilbao

1639 Mercator Hondius Large Antique Map of Basque Region of Spain, Bilbao

Description: 
This beautiful, very significant original antique map of the Basque Region of Spain centered on Bilbao extending from S. Andero to Calgurris and Baiona by Jan  Jansson was published in the 1639 French edition of Mercator's Atlas published by Henricus Hondius and Jan Jansson.

The text running for two pages on the back of the map generally describes the region or country name, history (as it was), temperature, seasons, soil and agricultural productivity. Also described is the topography, wildlife, local inhabitants their culture and religion, as well as a description of major European and local towns and cities. This text makes extremely enjoyable reading and a very good insight not only into the area described but the general European attitudes towards alien countries and cultures. (Ref: Suraz; Koeman; M&B; Tooley)

Condition Report:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - off white
Age of map color: - Later
Colors used: - Yellow, pink, green
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 21 1/2in x 18in (545mm x 460mm)
Plate size: - 19 1/2in x 15in (495mm x 380mm)
Margins: - Min 1in (25mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Bottom centrefold & margin restored
Plate area: - Re-joined & light uplift along centrefold, light creasing
Verso: - Repairs as noted, light creasing

$375.00 USD
More Info
1863 Dangerfield Rare Antique Map of Gettysburg, American Civil War, 1 July 1863

1863 Dangerfield Rare Antique Map of Gettysburg, American Civil War, 1 July 1863

  • Title : Sketch to show the advance of Ewell into Pennsylvania (marked thus_._._._.) also the simultaneous concentration of the armies of Lee and MEADE on Gettysburg on the 1st of July 1863...F Dangerfield Lith. 22 Bedford St Covent Garden
  • Date : 1863
  • Size: 8 1/2in x 5 1/2in (215mm x 140mm)
  • Ref #:  61002
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition

Description: 
This rare original antique military map of the intersection of Pennsylvania, Maryland & Virginia centering on Chambersburg & Gettysburg on the 1st of July 1863 was published by Frederick Dangerfield in late 1863.
The map illustrating possibly the most famous battle of the American Civil War also contains a legend showing the position of both the Federal & Confederate Armies on that day.

The Battle of Gettysburg was fought July 1–3, 1863, in and around the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, by Union and Confederate forces during the American Civil War. The battle involved the largest number of casualties of the entire war and is often described as the war's turning point.  Union Maj. Gen. George Meade's Army of the Potomac defeated attacks by Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia, ending Lee's attempt to invade the North.
After his success at Chancellorsville in Virginia in May 1863, Lee led his army through the Shenandoah Valley to begin his second invasion of the North—the Gettysburg Campaign. With his army in high spirits, Lee intended to shift the focus of the summer campaign from war-ravaged northern Virginia and hoped to influence Northern politicians to give up their prosecution of the war by penetrating as far as Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, or even Philadelphia. Prodded by President Abraham Lincoln, Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker moved his army in pursuit, but was relieved of command just three days before the battle and replaced by Meade.
Elements of the two armies initially collided at Gettysburg on July 1, 1863, as Lee urgently concentrated his forces there, his objective being to engage the Union army and destroy it. Low ridges to the northwest of town were defended initially by a Union cavalry division under Brig. Gen. John Buford, and soon reinforced with two corps of Union infantry. However, two large Confederate corps assaulted them from the northwest and north, collapsing the hastily developed Union lines, sending the defenders retreating through the streets of the town to the hills just to the south.
On the second day of battle, most of both armies had assembled. The Union line was laid out in a defensive formation resembling a fishhook. In the late afternoon of July 2, Lee launched a heavy assault on the Union left flank, and fierce fighting raged at Little Round Top, the Wheatfield, Devil's Den, and the Peach Orchard. On the Union right, Confederate demonstrations escalated into full-scale assaults on Culp's Hill and Cemetery Hill. All across the battlefield, despite significant losses, the Union defenders held their lines.
On the third day of battle, fighting resumed on Culp's Hill, and cavalry battles raged to the east and south, but the main event was a dramatic infantry assault by 12,500 Confederates against the center of the Union line on Cemetery Ridge, known as Pickett's Charge. The charge was repulsed by Union rifle and artillery fire, at great loss to the Confederate army.
Lee led his army on a torturous retreat back to Virginia. Between 46,000 and 51,000 soldiers from both armies were casualties in the three-day battle, the most costly in US history.
On November 19, President Lincoln used the dedication ceremony for the Gettysburg National Cemetery to honor the fallen Union soldiers and redefine the purpose of the war in his historic Gettysburg Address. (Ref Tooley M&B)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - off white
Age of map color: -  
Colors used: -  
General color appearance: -  
Paper size: - 8 1/2in x 5 1/2in (215mm x 140mm)
Plate size: - 8 1/2in x 5 1/2in (215mm x 140mm)
Margins: - Min 1/4in (5mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Light age top margin cropped closed to title
Plate area: - None
Verso: - None

$325.00 USD
More Info
1797 John Russell Old, Antique Map of The Great Lakes & Canada, North America

1797 John Russell Old, Antique Map of The Great Lakes & Canada, North America

  • Title : British Colonies in North America from the best Authorities
  • Ref  :  70195
  • Size: 10in x 8in (255mm x 205mm)
  • Date : 1797
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition

Description: 
This fine hand coloured original antique map of Canada and the Great Lakes was engraved in 1797 - dated at foot of map - by John Russell and published by Charles Dilly & John Robinson, London. (Ref: M&B; Tooley)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Light & stable
Paper color: - White
Age of map color: - Early
Colors used: - Red, green, orange
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 10in x 8in (260mm x 205mm)
Plate size: - 10in x 8in (260mm x 205mm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (12mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - Folds as issued
Verso: - None

$149.00 USD
More Info
1755 Seale & Postlethweyt Large Antique Map Trade Routes & Forts of West Africa

1755 Seale & Postlethweyt Large Antique Map Trade Routes & Forts of West Africa

  • Title : A New and Correct Map of the Coast of Africa from Cape Blance to the Coast of Angola with Explanatory Notes of all the Forts and settlements belonging to the several European Powers
  • Ref #:  92347
  • Size: 20 1/2in x 17in (520mm x 430mm)
  • Date : 1755
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition

Description:
This large finely engraved, highly detailed original antique map of the west coast of Africa from Senegal To Angola - with a separate inset map of the Gold Coast was engraved by William Seale - after Jean-Baptiste Bourguinon D'Anville - and was published in Malachy Postlethweyt's monumental 2 Volume Dictionary of Trade & Commerce published between 1751 & 1774.
Incredibly detailed map with an in-depth explanation of the different commercial interests of the European countries from Senegal referred to as the Gum Coast, Sierra Leone & Liberia known as the grain coast, Ivory coast, Ghana & Benin known as the Gold Coast all the way down to Angola.
The extensive text, bottom left, gives a detailed explanation to the different trades undertaken in which areas on the West Coast of Africa. This also included the unfortunate Slaves Trade, Ivory, Gold and Grain as well as local & European settlements and forts.
A truly fascinating insight into a vast region of Africa that was so crucial to the commerce and wealth of Western Europe.

Malachy Postlethweyt's Dictionary of Trade & Commerce:
A monumental dictionary of trade and commerce. It is based in part on the Dictionnaire universel de Commerce (Paris: 1723-30) of Jacques Savary de Bruslon, under whose name it is often catalogued, but has been adapted by Postlethwayt for a British audience, with substantial enlargements and improvements, and entirely new material relating to England and her colonies. Postlethwayt devoted twenty years to the preparation of the dictionary, which was first published in 1751-55 &  includes a description of British affairs in North America since the peace of 1763.
As with his other works, the dictionary demonstrates Postlethway’s deep commitment to the expansion and strengthening of English trade. Included are entries for geographical locations (Africa, Antilles, Canada, Japan, Louisiana, &c.), products (brandy, cardamom, codfish, diamonds, sugar, &c.), trading companies (Dutch East India Company, English African Company, &c.), treaties of commerce, and a vast range of other information of value to merchants (bankruptcy, currency, bills of exchange, brokerage, exportation, landed interest, privateering, &c.). The Dictionary is also important for containing almost the whole substance of Richard Cantillon’s Essay on Commerce, its first appearance in print.

Background: Being part of the Mediterranean world, the northern coasts of the African continent as far as the Straits of Gibraltar and even round to the area of the Fortunate Isles (the Canaries) were reasonably well known and quite accurately mapped from ancient times. In particular, Egypt and the Nile Valley were well defined and the Nile itself was, of course, one of the rivers separating the continents in medieval T-O maps. Through Arab traders the shape of the east coast, down the Red Sea as far as the equator, was also known but detail shown in the interior faded into deserts with occasional mountain ranges and mythical rivers. The southern part of the continent, in the Ptolemaic tradition, was assumed to curve to the east to form a land-locked Indian Ocean. The voyages of the Portuguese, organized by Henry the Navigator in the fifteenth century, completely changed the picture and by the end of the century Vasco da Gama had rounded the Cape enabling cartographers to draw a quite presentable coastal outline of the whole continent, even if the interior was to remain largely unknown for the next two or three centuries.
The first separately printed map of Africa (as with the other known continents) appeared in Munster's Geographia from 1540 onwards and the first atlas devoted to Africa only was published in 1588 in Venice by Livio Sanuto, but the finest individual map of the century was that engraved on 8 sheets by Gastaldi, published in Venice in 1564. Apart from maps in sixteenth-century atlases generally there were also magnificent marine maps of 1596 by Jan van Linschoten (engraved by van Langrens) of the southern half of the continent with highly imaginative and decorative detail in the interior. In the next century there were many attractive maps including those of Mercator/Hondius (1606), Speed (1627), Blaeu (1 630), Visscher (1636), de Wit (c. 1670), all embellished with vignettes of harbours and principal towns and bordered with elaborate and colourful figures of their inhabitants, but the interior remained uncharted with the exception of that part of the continent known as Ethiopia, the name which was applied to a wide area including present-day Abyssinia. Here the legends of Prester John lingered on and, as so often happened in other remote parts of the world, the only certain knowledge of the region was provided by Jesuit missionaries. Among these was Father Geronimo Lobo (1595-1678), whose work A Voyage to Abyssinia was used as the basis for a remarkably accurate map published by a German scholar, Hiob Ludolf in 1683. Despite the formidable problems which faced them, the French cartographers G. Delisle (c. 1700-22), J. B. B. d'Anville (1727-49) and N. Bellin (1754) greatly improved the standards of mapping of the continent, improvements which were usually, although not always, maintained by Homann, Seutter, de Ia Rochette, Bowen, Faden and many others in the later years of the century. (Ref: Tooley, M&B)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - White
Age of map color: - 
Colors used: - 
General color appearance: - 
Paper size: - 20 1/2in x 17in (520mm x 430mm)
Plate size: - 19 1/2in x 15 1/2in (495mm x 395mm)
Margins: - Min 1/4in (5mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Bottom left margin cropped to plate-mark
Plate area: - Folds as issued
Verso: - None

$275.00 USD
More Info
1782 Kitchin Large Antique Map Persian Empire - Iran - Caspian to Persian Gulf

1782 Kitchin Large Antique Map Persian Empire - Iran - Caspian to Persian Gulf

  • Title : New Map of Persia divided into its provinces from the latest authorities by T Kitchin geog. Hydrographer to his Majesty
  • Ref #:  61150
  • Size: 18in x 14 1/2in (460mm x 370mm)
  • Date : 1782
  • Condition: (A) Very Good Condition

Description: 
This large, finely engraved, detailed antique map of The Persian Empire from the Caspian Sea to the Persian Gulf by Thomas Kitchin was published in the 1782 edition of Millar's New & Universal System of Geographer, published by Alexander Hogg, London. 

As with all Kitchins map this is beautifully executed with extreme detail from Georgia to the Mouth of The Indus River. (Ref Tooley M&B)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - off white
Age of map color: - 
Colors used: - 
General color appearance: - 
Paper size: - 18in x 14 1/2in (460mm x 370mm)
Plate size: - 15 1/4in x 13 3/4in (385mm x 350mm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (15mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - Light creasing along folds, as issued
Verso: - None

$125.00 USD
More Info
1692 Jaillot Very Large Antique Map of Asia China, SE Asia, Middle East, Russia

1692 Jaillot Very Large Antique Map of Asia China, SE Asia, Middle East, Russia

  • Title : L' Asie divisee en ses Principales Regions....Hubert Jaillot
  • Ref #:  50612
  • Size: 35 1/2in x 23 1/2in (900mm x 595mm)
  • Date : 1692
  • Condition: (B) Good Condition

Description: 
This very large, beautifully hand coloured (with gold highlights) original antique map of Asia was engraved in 1692 - dated in title - and was published by Hubert Jaillot in his monumental Atlas Nouveau.
This map is beautifully hand coloured with gold highlights along some of the country borders and the cartouches indicating it was once part of an Imperial Atlas.
The Imperial atlases were hand coloured using gold highlights and other rare colours which at the time was extremely expensive and available at the time only to royalty and the very rich.

Background: After Nicolas Sanson, Hubert Jaillot and Pierre Duval were the most important French cartographers of the seventeenth & eighteenth centuries. Jaillot, originally a sculptor, became interested in geography after his marriage to the daughter of Nicolas Berey (1606-65), a famous map colourist, and went into partnership in Paris with Sanson's sons. There, from about 1669, he undertook the re-engraving, enlarging and re-publishing of the Sanson maps in sheet form and in atlases, sparing no effort to fill the gap in the map trade left by the destruction of Blaeu's printing establishment in Amsterdam in 1672. Many of his maps were printed in Amsterdam (by Pierre Mortier) as well as in Paris. One of his most important works was a magnificent sea atlas, Le Neptune François, published in 1693 and compiled in co-operation with J D Cassini. This was re-published shortly afterwards by Pierre Mortier in Amsterdam with French, Dutch and English texts, the charts having been re-engraved. Eventually, after half a century, most of the plates were used again as the basis for a revised issue published by J N Bellin in 1753.(Ref: Tooley; M&B)

General Condition:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - off white
Age of map color: - Original
Colors used: - Yellow, green, red, brown, gold.
General color appearance: - Authentic and fresh
Paper size: - 35 1/2in x 23 1/2in (900mm x 595mm)
Plate size: - 34 1/2in x 22 1/2in (875mm x 570mm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (10mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Age toning
Plate area: - Age toning, re-join to centerfold
Verso: - Age toning, several long separations to paper re-enforced with archival tape

$750.00 USD
More Info
1786 Chris. Cellarius Old, Antique Atlas Geographia - w/ 27 Maps and Armillary

1786 Chris. Cellarius Old, Antique Atlas Geographia - w/ 27 Maps and Armillary

  • Title : CHRISTOPHORI CELLARII SMALCALDENSIS GEOGRAPHIA ANTIQUA - Recognita denuo & ad veterum novorumque scriptorium fidem, historicorum maxime identidem castigate & Quinta Editione plurimis locis aucta & immutata
  • Ref #:  61153
  • Size: 8 1/2in x 5 1/2in (21.5cm x 13.5cm)
  • Date : 1786
  • Condition: (A) Good Condition

Description: 
Scarce edition of the Christopher Cellarius unique 1786 Atlas Geographiawith 27 folding maps. Overall condition of the Atlas is Good (see below) with the contents in VG to Fine condition.
Beautiful example of this iconic Atlas complete.

Description: "CHRISTOPHORI CELLARII SMALCALDENSIS GEOGRAPHIA ANTIQUA - Recognita denuo & ad veterum novorumque scriptorium fidem, historicorum maxime identidem castigate & Quinta Editione plurimis locis aucta & immutata - Huic demum Sextae Editioni Tot CHARTAS ex majori auctoris Geographia antiqua quot ad minorem hanc illustrandam requirebantur, DUPLICEMQUE INDICEM QUORUM Priori vetera locorum nomina novis praeponuntur Posteriori nova veteribus, Addidit, totam recensuit & Scholarum usui accommodavit. SAMUEL PATRICK, L.L.D. EDITIO altera & castigatior.LONDINISumptibus J & T. POTE, E. BALLARD, C. BATHURST, J. F. & C. RIVINGTON, T. LONGMAN & G. GINGER M.DCC.LXXXVI" (1786)
Bound in full leather with five raised bands to spine. Volume measures approx. 21.5cm x 13.5cm x 2cm. The front and rear boards are cracked to spine edges and have some movement. Chipped to top and bottom of spine and corners, with small loss. There are a couple of chips to leather. The first page is the title page and last leaf is the last leaf of text. Fixed endpapers are browned.
The title page, and last leaf are browned to edges, and there is an ink mark to last leaf. Couple of leaves and a map are detached. One page has large corner chip, with loss. There are a couple of ink numbers/marks to rear of one of the maps, and the occasional ink mark and splash. Overall the majority of contents are in clean and tight condition.
There are 27 folding maps with armillary Sphere. Atlas content index (see images)

Background: Geographica was one of the most popular geographical publications of the 17th and 18th centuries lasting into the 19th century. (Ref: Tooley; M&B)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - off white
Age of map color: - 
Colors used: - 
General color appearance: - 
Atlas size: - 8 1/2in x 5 1/2in (21.5cm x 13.5cm)
Map size: - 9 1/2in x 8 1/2in (23cm x 21.5cm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (12mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - See above
Plate area: - See above
Verso: - See above

$1,350.00 USD
More Info
1824 Kelly Old, Antique Print of a North American Indian in War Dress & Tomahawk

1824 Kelly Old, Antique Print of a North American Indian in War Dress & Tomahawk

Description:
This wonderful hand coloured original antique print of a North American Indian in war dress was published in the 1824 edition of A New And Complete System Of Universal Geography, Or An Authentic History And Interesting Description Of The Whole World And Its Inhabitants by Christopher Kelly and was printed by Rider and Weed in Little Britain, London

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy & stable
Paper color: - Off white
Age of map color: - Original
Colors used: - Red, yellow, black, gold 
General color appearance: -  Authentic
Paper size: - 10 1/2in x 8in (270mm x 205mm)
Plate size: - 10 1/2in x 8in (270mm x 205mm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (12mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - None
Verso: - None

$99.00 USD
More Info
1550 Sebastian Munster Original Antique Oval World Map - Columbus America

1550 Sebastian Munster Original Antique Oval World Map - Columbus America

Description:
This fine wood-block engraved original antique World Map was engraved by David Kandel, initials engraved bottom left "DK" and was published in the 1550 edition of Cosmographia by Sebastian Munster.
One of the most recognizable maps of the 16th century considered the first map to identify the Pacific Ocean, as here, 'Mare Pacificum.' This is the world of the educated 16th century European, divided into Asia, Europe, India, Africa and America. The southern latitudes are inhabited by a variety of sea monsters and sailing ships.
American continent is nearly unrecognizable, only a scant 58 years after European discovery by Christopher Columbus. North America is defined as Terra Florida showing an enormous inlet extending towards the eastern seaboard in the vicinity of modern day North Carolina named Verrazano's Sea. Apparently Verrazano, coasting the Outer Banks, observed the Pamlico Sound and assumed that beyond the narrow coastal banks, an open sea gave direct access to the pacific - wishful thinking at best. Verrazano's Sea appears so dramatically on few maps, but persisted in lesser forms for nearly a century. 
South America with tentacle like protrusions in all directions, is largely amorphous, but the Rio de la Plata and the Strait of Magellan are clear. Tierra del Fuego is enormous, with no mention of greater Terra Australias, an interesting omission by Munster. 
Europe is vaguely recognizable and connected, via an arctic peninsula, to Greenland and North America. 
Asia/Pacific extends eastward far enough to reappear just north of America. Ceylon is not present, but a landmass bearing roughly the shape and position of Sumatra is identified as Tapobrana (a term more commonly associated with Ceylon). Japan appears as Zipangri. 
Unlike many other world maps of the time, Munster has left out the concept of a 'Terra Australis Incognita' altogether choosing to show ocean instead.
Africa follows the Ptolemaic model with the Nile finding its source in a mountain range and two associated lakes. 
The whole is surrounded by twelve named and prominent wind heads - one for each direction.

Background: This wood-cut engraved World map was prepared for the 1550 edition of Sebastian Münster's Cosmographia to replace the earlier World map by Sebasian Munster which had appeared in the editions of the Geographia and Cosmographia from 1540 onwards. The publisher, from 1552, was Heinrich Petri, Münster's son-in-law. 
This "new world" map is on an oval projection, similar in many respects to the previous Munster world map, but with the woodcutter's initials "DK" added, identified as those of the engraver David Kandel, in the lower left-hand corner.
The titles of the wind-heads are now in banners and the east and west winds, unlike the 1540 version, do not protrude inside the oval circumference. North America still retains its unusual shape almost bisected by water but the earlier note indicating a route to the Moluccas has been omitted...."
The map was first issued in the 1550 edition of Cosmographia, and appeared in all subsequent editions through to 1578, with the title varying according to the language of the edition. On the verso the wood block is the title and text, in Latin.

Sebastian Münster (1488-1552) was a German cartographer, cosmographer, and Hebrew scholar whose work Cosmographia (1544; "Cosmography") was the earliest German description of the world and a major work in the revival of geographic thought in 16th-century Europe. It had numerous editions in different languages including Latin, French, Italian, English, and even Czech. Altogether, about 40 editions of the Cosmographia appeared between 1544 and 1628 and was one of the most successful and popular books of the 16th century. Münster was a major influence in popular thinking in Europe for the next 200 years.
This success was due not only to the level of descriptive detail but also to the fascinating full page maps & views as well as smaller woodcuts that were included in the text. Many of the woodcuts were executed by famous engravers of the time including Hans Holbein the Younger, Urs Graf, Hans Rudolph Manuel Deutsch, and David Kandel. 
Aside from the well-known maps present in the Cosmographia, the text is thickly sprinkled with vigorous views: portraits of kings and princes, costumes and occupations, habits and customs, flora and fauna, monsters, wonders, and horrors about the known -- and unknown -- world, and was undoubtedly one of the most widely read books of its time.
Münster acquired the material for his book in three ways. Firstly he researched all available literary sources across Germany, Switzerland and other parts of Europe. Secondly he obtained original manuscript material from locals all over Europe for description of the countryside, cities, villages, towns, rivers and local history. Finally, he obtained further material first hand on his travels (primarily in south-west Germany, Switzerland, and Alsace). 

In 1588 Sebastian Petri re-released Cosomgraphia and re-issued many of Munsters maps and views in the "copperplate style". The maps in this release were more sophisticated than with earlier publications of Cosomgraphia and were based on the 1570 release of Abraham Ortelius monumental work Theatrum Orbis Terrarum. (Ref: Shirley; Tooley; M&B)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - White
Age of map color: -  
Colors used: -  
General color appearance: -  
Paper size: - 15 3/4in x 12 1/2in (400mm x 310mm)
Plate size: - 15 3/4in x 12 1/2in (400mm x 310mm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (10mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - L&R margins extended, not affecting borders or image
Plate area: - None
Verso: - None

$3,250.00 USD
More Info
1801 Cary Antique map of Turkey in Europe - Greece, Balkans, Bosnia, Moldavia

1801 Cary Antique map of Turkey in Europe - Greece, Balkans, Bosnia, Moldavia

  • Title : A New Map of Turkey in Europe, Divided into its Provinces, from the Best Authorities 1801
  • Ref #:  16433
  • Size: 25in x 21 1/2in (635mm x 545mm) 
  • Date : 1801
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition

Description:
This large beautifully hand coloured original antique map of the Ottoman Empire in Europe from Greece, The Balkans to Hungary by John Cary was engraved in 1801 - the date is engraved in the title - and was published in Cary's large New Universal Atlas.

An exceptionally beautiful example of John Cary’s important 1801 map of Turkey in Europe. Covers from the Adriatic eastward to Crimea and Southwards as far as Crete and Cyprus. While technically a map of Ottoman holdings in Europe, this map is essentially a map of Greece and the Balkans. Includes the modern day countries of Turkey, Greece, Albania, Macedonia, Rumania, Bulgaria, Moldova, Serbia, Bosnia, Croatia and Montenegro. Notes the line of Division between Europe and Asia as it passes through the Black Sea and the Aegean. All in all, one of the most interesting and attractive atlas maps of Greece and the Balkans to appear in first years of the 19th century. (Ref Tooley M&B)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - off white
Age of map color: - Original  
Colors used: - Green, yellow, pink 
General color appearance: - Authentic  
Paper size: - 25in x 21 1/2in (635mm x 545mm) 
Plate size: - 23 1/2in x 20 1/2in (600mm x 520mm) 
Margins: - Min 1in (25mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - None
Verso: - None

$375.00 USD
More Info
1780 Bonne Cook Antique Maps of Russia, Japan, Macao China, Alaska

1780 Bonne Cook Antique Maps of Russia, Japan, Macao China, Alaska

  • Title : Plan de la Baye D' Awatska; Partie Du Japon ou Nippon; Plan du Typa ou de Macao; Isle de Soufre
  • Date : 1780
  • Condition: (A) Very Good Condition
  • Ref:  40584
  • Size: 16in x 11in (405mm x 280mm)

Description:
This beautifully hand coloured original antique map of 4 regions of the North Pacific explored by Captain James Cook during his third Voyage of Discovery and tracks showing Cooks survey routes within Prince William Sound -  was published by Rigobert Bonne in the 1780 edition of Atlas des toutes les parties connues du globe terrestre by Guillaume Raynal.

The 4 maps are;
1. Avacha Bay, Kamchatka Penninsular Russia.
2. East coast and Islands of Japan
3. Town & Islands of Macao, China
4. Islands of Soufre Vanauatu South Pacific. (Ref Tooley M&B)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - White
Age of map color: - Early
Colors used: -Green, yellow
General color appearance: - Authentic and fresh
Paper size: - 16in x 11in (405mm x 280mm)
Plate size: - 14 1/2in x 10in (370mm x 255mm)
Margins: - Min 1in (25mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - Two very small worm holes adjacent to right centerfold
Verso: - None

$125.00 USD
More Info
1755 Bellin Antique Map of The Island of Barbados

1755 Bellin Antique Map of The Island of Barbados

Description: 
This beautifully engraved hand coloured original antique map of the Island of Barbados was published in 1755 by Jacques Nicolas Bellin for Antoine-François Prevosts 20 volume edition of L`Histoire Generale des Voyages published by Pierre de Hondt, The Hague between 1747 & 1785. (Ref: Tooley; M&B)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Light and stable
Paper color: - off white
Age of map color: - Early 
Colors used: - Red, green, yellow 
General color appearance: - Authentic 
Paper size: - 13 1/2in x 11 1/2in (350mm x 270mm)
Plate size: - 8 1/4in x 6 1/2in (250mm x 170mm)
Margins: - Min 2in (50mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Light age toning
Plate area: - None
Verso: - None

$225.00 USD
More Info
1780 Bonne Cook Antique Map Prince William Sound Alaska

1780 Bonne Cook Antique Map Prince William Sound Alaska

  • Title : Carte De La Riviere De Cook ...Par M. Bonne...
  • Ref #:  40571
  • Size: 15 1/2in x 10in (395mm x 255mm)
  • Date : 1780
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition 

Description: 
This fine beautifully hand coloured original antique map of Prince William Sound and the Cook inlet - with an inset map of Samganoodha inlet and tracks showing Cooks survey routes within Prince William Sound -  was published by Rigobert Bonne in the 1780 edition of Atlas des toutes les parties connues du globe terrestre by Guillaume Raynal. (Ref Tooley M&B)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - White
Age of map color: - Early
Colors used: -.Pink, green, yellow, blue
General color appearance: - Authentic and fresh
Paper size: - 15 1/2in x 10in (395mm x 255mm)
Plate size: - 14in x 9in (355mm x 230mm)
Margins: - Min 1in (25mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - Two very small worm holes adjacent to bottom centerfold
Verso: - None

$225.00 USD
More Info
1720 Herman Moll Large Antique Map of The Netherlands - Holland, VII Provinces

1720 Herman Moll Large Antique Map of The Netherlands - Holland, VII Provinces

  • Title : A New and Exact Map of the United Provinces, or Netherlands &c. According to the Newest and Most Exact Observations by Herman Moll Geographer
  • Ref #:  35090
  • Size: 41in x 25in (1.04m x 635mm)
  • Date : 1720
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition

Description: 
This very large beautifully hand coloured original antique map* of The Netherlands by Herman Moll was published in 1720 in the atlas The World Described, or a New and Correct Sett of Maps by John Bowles, Thomas Bowles, Philip Overton & John King of London.
In the 18th century many large-scale maps were published by the likes of John Senex and Herman Moll, this trend continued until the end of private mapping in the early 19th century when it was replaced by Ordnance Survey maps.

Background: An attractive, large scale map of The Netherlands or the United Provinces by the highly regarded cartographer and engraver Herman Moll. on the right-hand side views of Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Middelburg, Utrecht, Groningen, Het Loo Palace and a plan of the ancient Roman Castle at the mouth of the Rhine river Arx Britannica (Huis Britten, Brittenberg).  The upper left corner of the map has an inset map of the coasts, sands and banks of the North Sea, the stretch of water that lies between England and The Netherlands. Moll dedicates his map to ‘The Right Hon Charles Lord Viscount of Townsend &c one of his Majesty’s Principal Secretaries of State’
This magnificent map was printed by John Bowles of Cornhill, London and published in Moll’s 1719 New and Complete Atlas, but it may also have been separately issued earlier. Moll came to London probably from Bremen around 1678 and by 1688 he had his own shop in Vanley's Court in London's Blackfriars, between 1691 and 1710 at the corner of Spring Gardens and Charing Cross, when he moved to Beech Street where he remained until his death. In 1701 he published his first work A System of Geography. He was publishing atlases and separately issued maps, and from 1710 was also known as a maker of pocket globes. (Ref: Tooley, Koeman, M&B)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - off white
Age of map color: - Original & later
Colors used: - Pink, yellow, green  
General color appearance: - Original  
Paper size: - 41in x 25in (1.04m x 635mm)
Plate size: - 39 1/4in x 24 1/2in (1.00m x 625mm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (10mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Light creasing
Plate area: - Re-joined folds as issued, small repair in top L&R folds, no loss
Verso: - Re-enforced along folds

$1,499.00 USD
More Info
1755 De Vaugondy Large Old, Antique Map of Colonial United States - Chesapeake Bay

1755 De Vaugondy Large Old, Antique Map of Colonial United States - Chesapeake Bay

  • Title : Partie De L Amerique Septentrionale, qui Comprend Le Cours De L Ohio...1755
  • Ref #:  61112
  • Size: 11 1/2in x 8in (290mm x 205mm)
  • Date : 1755
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition

Description: 
This large, beautifully hand coloured, scarce 1st state original antique map* depicting the eastern colonies between the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers and the Atlantic, including the Great Lakes and a small part of Upper Canada, was engraved in 1755 - the date is engraved in the title cartouche - and  published by Robert Du Vaugondy in his Atlas Universal, Paris 1757. 
This is one of the finest examples of this map I have seen to date. Beautiful hand colour on age toned heavy paper with original margins with a heavy dark ink denoting a very early pressing. T the time of listing there are 2 examples of this 1st state map for sale on the web at $1600 & 1800 respectively.
 

Background: First state of the beautiful and early de Vaugondy map of the British colonies, based upon John Mitchell's great map of North America from the same year, also drawing from Lewis, Evans on the Middle British Colonies and Joshua Fry's and Peter Jefferson's map of Virginia and Maryland. The Mitchell map was the culmination of many years of British surveying in the North American Colonies and was considered one of the best maps of the continent available to Europeans and Americans in the mid-eighteenth century. 
De Vaugondy's rendition does not copy the full scope of Mitchell's map but instead focuses on the colonies stretching from southern Maine to the Carolinas. In the top left corner is an inset of South Carolina and Georgia. De Vaugondy also pays special attention to the river systems and settlements. This map shows some of the earliest accurate information of the trans-Allegheny regions (the Ohio River, Kentucky, Tennessee and Parts of Ohio) and inland areas to the southeast of the Great Lakes and interior of New England. The dotted lines and outline color designate pre-Treaty of Paris (1763) information about the Ohio country. 
Maine is still part of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. During this era, a dispute arose between New Hampshire and New York over who controlled the area which is now Vermont. Here, New York is shown as to contain Vermont within its borders. The outbreak of the French & Indian War (Seven Years War) briefly suspended interest in the disputed area, and it was not until 1764 that the British crown upheld New York's claim to Vermont. The western borders of the British Colonies extend only to the Appalachians, with the exception of "Caroline, "which extends slightly further west. This shows the strong French presence along the western frontier in the days leading up to the French & Indian conflict. Pennsylvania is shown to stretch north almost to Lake Ontario and encompass much of western New York. 
Included is a beautiful title cartouche in the Rococo style. 
(Ref: Tooley; M&B)
 

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - White
Age of map color: - Original & later
Colors used: - Pink, green, yellow
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper Size: - 30 1/2in x 21in (775mm x 535mm)
Plate size: - 24 1/2in x 19 1/2in (620mm x 495mm)
Margins: - Min 1in (25mm)
 

Imperfections:
Margins: - Light uniform age toning
Plate area: - Light age toning along centerfold
Verso: - Light uniform age toning

$1,750.00 USD
More Info
1861-65 Large Antique American Civil War Map of The Potomac River, Alexandria

1861-65 Large Antique American Civil War Map of The Potomac River, Alexandria

Description: 
This very large, highly detailed original antiquemap of the Potomac River and Virginia - stretching from Alexandria in the north, Dumfries in the SW to Cooks Ferry in the south - was published during the American Civil War.

This map does not have a title but research has dated the map to the American Civil War. This was determined by the size and layout of the City of Alexandria but more importantly the existence of Fort Ellsworth to the west of Alexandria, which was built in 1861 and decommissioned after the war in 1865. (Ref: Tooley; M&B)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Light & stable
Paper color: - White
Age of map color: - 
Colors used: -  
General color appearance: -  
Paper size: - 29in x 26in (740mm x 660mm)
Plate size: - 29in x 26in (740mm x 660mm)
Margins: - min 1/2in (12mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - None
Verso: - None

$325.00 USD
More Info
1638 Jansson Old, Antique Map of the Turkish Empire, Saudi Arabia, Middle East

1638 Jansson Old, Antique Map of the Turkish Empire, Saudi Arabia, Middle East

Description: 
This beautiful, old original antique map* of The Turkish Empire in Europe, Africa & Asia centering on Saudi Arabia by Jan Jansson was published in the 1638 Latin edition for  Mercator's Atlas by both Henricus Hondius and Jan Jansson.

 

 

Background: This is the standard 17th century view of the Turkish Empire, including the Balkans in south-eastern Europe, the North African littoral, the Levant and the Arabian Peninsula in addition to the area of Modern Turkey & Persia.
Much of the place name information on this map is derived from the maps published in 1561 by the Italian mapmaker, Giacomo Gastaldi, whose maps exercised great influence over later European mapmakers, throughout the 17th century.
Formidable though the barrier presented by the Turkish Empire in the Near East was, by the early years of the 17th century it was beginning to show signs of decadence and weakness, especially after the defeat of the Turkish navy at the hands of the combined Christian forces of Western Europe at the battle of Lepanto in 1571, from which Turkish naval power never fully recovered. 
Centered on the palace of the Sultans at Constantinople, the administration of the empire was passed down through local rulers, the Beys, Deys and Pashas, who never lost an opportunity to enrich themselves and to develop often considerable powers of their own.
Further defeats of the Turks occurred in 1669 when Candia (Crete) was taken by the Venetians, and in 1683 when they suffered a humiliating defeat outside Wien (Vienna) at the north-western extremity of European Turkey. (Ref: Suraz; Koeman; M&B; Tooley)

 

 

Condition Report:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - off white
Age of map color: - Early & Later
Colors used: - Yellow, pink, green
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 22 1/2in x 19in (570mm x 485mm)
Plate size: - 21in x 16 1/2in (530mm x 420mm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (12mm)

 

 

Imperfections:
Margins: - Several small repairs to margins, no loss
Plate area: - Centerfold re-joined light uplift along centerfold, light age toning
Verso: - Repairs as noted

 

 

$750.00 USD
More Info
1690 Nicolas Visscher Large Old, Antique Map of Great Britain & Ireland

1690 Nicolas Visscher Large Old, Antique Map of Great Britain & Ireland

  •  Title : Magnae Britanniae Tabula...Angliae, Scotiae, Ac Hiberniae Regna...Per Nicol. Visscher...Guilielmo III D.G.
  • Ref #:  61110
  • Size: 24in x 20in (610mm x 515mm)
  • Date : 1690
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition

Description: This large rare beautifully hand coloured original antique map of Great Britain & Ireland was published by Nicholas Visscher in 1690
This is a very beautiful map with rich deep colour and heavy engraving on clean and stable paper. It is also an important map, dedicated to William III of Orange (King Billy) who ruled GB & Ireland between 1689 &  1702, a time of great change both in Europe and the New World.

 

 

Background: In 1558 Queen Elizabeth came to the throne in the midst of a fast changing world. In 1563 a nineteen sheet map, copies of which survive only in manuscript form, was completed by Laurence Nowell, and no doubt, the issue of Mercator's large-scale map of the British Isles in 1564 had an important influence on the thought of the period. A few years later a national survey was commissioned privately, although probably at the instigation of Lord Burghley, the Lord Treasurer, but subsequently was completed with royal encouragement. The outcome was Christopher Saxton's Atlas of EngIand and Wales, started about 1570 and published in 1579 - the first printed set of county maps and the first countrywide atlas on such a splendid scale produced anywhere. A Welsh antiquarian, Humphrey Lhuyd completed a set of surveys that were even more successful than Saxton in which he had produced fine manuscript maps of England and Wales which were used by Ortelius in editions of his Atlas from 1573 onwards.
The earliest maps of the 17th century, attributed to William Smith of the College of Heralds, covered only twelve counties based on Saxton/Norden and were presumably intended to be part of a complete new atlas. They were printed in the Low Countries in 1602-3 and were soon followed by maps for the Latin edition of Camden's Britannia dated 1607. In 1610-11 the first edition of John Speed's famous county Atlas The Theatre of the Empire of Great Britaine was published and immediately replaced Saxton's in popular appeal. Although Speed assembled much of his material from the earlier works of Saxton, Norden and others, a considerable part of the up-to-date information, especially relating to the inset town plans depicted on his maps, was obtained first hand. The maps undoubtedly owed much of their popularity to the splendid engravings of high quality made in the workshops in Amsterdam of Jodocus Hondius to whom Speed sent his manuscripts, the plates subsequently being returned to London for printing.
In 1645, Volume IV of the famous Blaeu World Atlas covering the counties of England and Wales was published in Amsterdam. These maps have always been esteemed as superb examples of engraving and design, the calligraphy being particularly splendid, but nevertheless they were nearly all based on Saxton and Speed and added little to geographical knowledge.
Not until the latter part of the century do we find an English map maker of originality with the capacity to put new ideas into practice. John Ogilby, one of the more colourful figures associated with cartography, started life as a dancing master and finished as King's Cosmographer and Geographic Printer. After publishing a small number of county maps, somewhat on the lines of John Norden he issued in 1675 the Britannia, the first practical series of detailed maps of the post roads of England and Wales on a standard scale of 1,760 yards to the mile. Up to the end of the century and beyond, reprints and revisions of Saxton's and Speed's atlases continued to appear and the only other noteworthy county maps were Richard Blome's Britannia (1673), John Overton's Atlas (c. 1670) and Robert Morden's maps for an English translation of Camden's Britannia published in 1695.
Another noted cartographer of the day was Captain Greenvile Collins, and of his work in surveying the coasts of Great Britain culminating in the issue in 1693 of the Great Britain's Coasting Pilot. Apart from these charts, English cartographers published during the century a number of world atlases. Speed was the first Englishman to produce a world atlas with the issue in 1627 of his A Prospect of the Most Famous Parts of the World. Other atlases appeared later in the century by Peter Heylin, John Seller, William Berry, Moses Pitt and Richard Blome, whilst Ogilby found time to issue maps of Africa, America and Asia. Far more important, from the purely scientific point of view, was the work of Edmund Halley, Astronomer Royal, who compiled and issued meteorological and magnetic charts in 1688 and 1701 respectively.
At the beginning of the eighteenth century the Dutch map trade was finally in decline, the French in the ascendant and the English to a great extent still dominated by Saxton and Speed except, as we have shown, in the spheres of sea charts and road maps. There were atlases by John Senex, the Bowles family, Emanuel and Thomas Bowen, Thomas Badeslade and the unique bird's-eye perspective views of the counties, The British Monarchy by George Bickham. In 1750-60 Bowen and Kitchin's The Large English Atlas containing maps on a rather larger scale than hitherto was published.
In 1759 the Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce offered an award of £100 for the best original surveys on this scale and by the end of the century about thirty counties had been re-surveyed. These maps, many of which formed, in later years, the basis for the first issues of county maps by the Ordnance Survey Office were not only decorative but a tremendous improvement geographically on earlier local maps. As a consequence, the skills and expertise of the new-style cartographers soon enabled them to cover the world as well as the domestic market. Thomas Jefferys was such a man; he was responsible for a number of the new 1 in. to 1 mile county surveys and he issued an edition of Saxton's much battered 200-year-old plates of the county maps, but he is better known for many fine maps of North America and the West Indies. His work was continued on the same lines by William Faden, trading as Faden and Jefferys. Other publishers such as Sayer and Bennett and their successors Laurie and Whittle published a prodigious range of maps, charts and atlases in the second half of the century. A major influence at this time was John Cary who, apart from organizing the first re-survey of post roads since Ogilby and subsequently printing the noted Travellers' Companion, was a prolific publisher of atlases and maps of every kind of all parts of the world. After starting work with Cary, and taking part in the new road survey, Aaron Arrowsmith set up in his own business and went on to issue splendid large-scale maps of many parts of the world. Both Cary's and Arrowsmith's plates were used by other publishers until far into the next century and, in turn, their work was taken up and developed by James Wyld (Elder and Younger) and Tallis and Co.
Later into the 19th century some of the better known cartographers and publishers were by Henry Teesdale (1829-30), Christopher and John Greenwood, surveyors, Thomas Moule, a writer on heraldry and antiques (1830-36) and John Walker (1837) but by about the middle of the century few small-scale publishers survived and their business passed into the hands of large commercial concerns such as Bartholomews of Edinburgh and Philips of London who continue to this day. (Ref: Shirley; Tooley; M&B)

 

 

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - off white
Age of map color: - Original
Colors used: - Red, yellow, green, blue
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 24in x 20in (610mm x 515mm)
Plate size: - 23in x 19in (585mm x 460mm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (12mm)

 

 

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - None
Verso: - None

 

 

$1,250.00 USD
More Info
1765 De Buffon Large Antique Folio Bird Print of North American Hairy Woodpecker

1765 De Buffon Large Antique Folio Bird Print of North American Hairy Woodpecker

Description: 
This fine, beautifully hand coloured original antique ornithogical bird print of the North American Hairy Woodpecker was engraved by Francois Nicolas Martinet and published in the 1765 edition of George Louis Leclerc or Count de Buffon Histore Naturelle de Oiseauxwith the total volumes printed between 1765 to 1780.
 *Please do not be confused between these larger fine folio prints and the later, smaller  8vo prints.

Histoire Naturelle Des Oiseaux, is a collection of 1,008 hand colored bird prints edited by Georges-Louis Marie Leclerc, the Count of Buffon. This was one of two major de Buffon works, collectively the most comprehensive French natural history sets of their time. Histoire Naturelle Des Oiseaux was published in 42 volumes from 1765 to 1780 by Edme Louis Daubenton in  collaboration with de Buffon, illustrated with engravings by Francois Nicolas Martinet.

Georges-Louis Leclerc or Count de Buffon (1707 - 1788) was a French aristocrat of formidable intellect and achievements, including books on mathematics and natural history. Although his father initially steered him toward law school, Buffon persisted in pursuing his interest in math. At the age of 20, he discovered the binomial theorem and later introduced differential and integral calculus into probability theory. He soon became fascinated with biological science, and his father relented and let him enroll in the faculty of medicine to study botany and zoology. As a young man in Paris, he befriended Voltaire and other intellectuals, and gained admission to the prestigious Academy of Science at age 27. Decades before Darwin introduced his theory of evolution, Buffon dared to challenge religious thought with empirical observations, suggesting that the earth was older than 6,000 years and that the physical resemblance between humans and apes might be explained by their having a common ancestry. While the theories he proposed to explain these phenomena were by and large incorrect, he correctly grasped that a new paradigm was needed.
De Buffon also published a different 44-volume natural history work with various studies, including birds, titled Histoire Naturelle Generale Et Particuliere (Natural History, General and Particular) (Paris, 1749-1804), which included works by various artists including Jacques Eustache de Sève. This work was his major achievement and an ambitious project characteristic of the 18th-century Enlightenment: a 44-volume encyclopedia attempting to include everything known about the natural world and widely disseminate scientific knowledge. It was the first complete natural history survey presented in a popular form, and also broke ground in attempting to separate science from theological dogma.

Francois Nicolas Martinet was a French engraver and draughtsman. In 1756, he was working for the court of France as Graveur du Cabinet du Roi, under the auspices of the Menus Plaisirs du Roi, making engravings after drawings by others of such subjects as the May Ball at Versailles during the Carnival of 1763. In the same period, Martinet produced illustrations for plays or comic operas by such contemporaries as Marmontel, Voltaire and Philidor. Some of these he engraved himself, while others were drawn by him but engraved by his sister Thérèse Martinet (born c. 1731). He is best known for his engravings of birds for Comte de Buffon's, Histoire Naturelle Des Oiseaux published in Paris from 1770-86. In 1768, a comprehensive group of natural history studies drafted by Martinet, and engraved by Robert Bénard were included in the natural history volume of Diderot and Alembert’s Encyclopédie. Martinet also drew and engraved portraits, landscapes and genre scenes. (Ref: Tooley; M&B)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - off white
Age of map color: - Original
Colors used: - Green, blue, yellow
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 12in x 9in (305mm x 230mm)
Plate size: - 10in x 8in (255mm x 205mm)
Margins: - Min 1in (25mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - None
Verso: - None

$375.00 USD
More Info
1765 Count De Buffon Large Folio Antique Print The Giraffe & Rhinoceros Beetles

1765 Count De Buffon Large Folio Antique Print The Giraffe & Rhinoceros Beetles

  • Title : Scarabes Fig. 1 La Giraffette Fig 2. Le Taureau - Volant
  • Ref #:  23515
  • Size: 12in x 9in (305mm x 230mm)
  • Date : 1765
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition

Description: 
This fine, beautifully hand coloured original antique large folio print* of the Giraffe Beetle and the Rhinoceros Beetle was engraved by Francois Nicolas Martinet and was  published in Histoire Naturelle Generale Et Particuliere by Georges-Louis Leclerc or Count de Buffon. 
*Please do not be confused between these larger fine folio prints and the later, smaller  8vo prints.

Histoire Naturelle Des Oiseaux, is a collection of 1,008 hand colored bird prints edited by Georges-Louis Marie Leclerc, the Count of Buffon. This was one of two major de Buffon works, collectively the most comprehensive French natural history sets of their time. Histoire Naturelle Des Oiseauxwas published in 42 volumes from 1765 to 1780 by Edme Louis Daubenton in  collaboration with de Buffon, illustrated with engravings by Francois Nicolas Martinet.

Georges-Louis Leclerc or Count de Buffon (1707 - 1788) was a French aristocrat of formidable intellect and achievements, including books on mathematics and natural history. Although his father initially steered him toward law school, Buffon persisted in pursuing his interest in math. At the age of 20, he discovered the binomial theorem and later introduced differential and integral calculus into probability theory. He soon became fascinated with biological science, and his father relented and let him enroll in the faculty of medicine to study botany and zoology. As a young man in Paris, he befriended Voltaire and other intellectuals, and gained admission to the prestigious Academy of Science at age 27. Decades before Darwin introduced his theory of evolution, Buffon dared to challenge religious thought with empirical observations, suggesting that the earth was older than 6,000 years and that the physical resemblance between humans and apes might be explained by their having a common ancestry. While the theories he proposed to explain these phenomena were by and large incorrect, he correctly grasped that a new paradigm was needed.
De Buffon also published a different 44-volume natural history work with various studies, including birds, titled Histoire Naturelle Generale Et Particuliere (Natural History, General and Particular) (Paris, 1749-1804), which included works by various artists including Jacques Eustache de Sève. This work was his major achievement and an ambitious project characteristic of the 18th-century Enlightenment: a 44-volume encyclopedia attempting to include everything known about the natural world and widely disseminate scientific knowledge. It was the first complete natural history survey presented in a popular form, and also broke ground in attempting to separate science from theological dogma.

Francois Nicolas Martinet was a French engraver and draughtsman. In 1756, he was working for the court of France as Graveur du Cabinet du Roi, under the auspices of the Menus Plaisirs du Roi, making engravings after drawings by others of such subjects as the May Ball at Versailles during the Carnival of 1763. In the same period, Martinet produced illustrations for plays or comic operas by such contemporaries as Marmontel, Voltaire and Philidor. Some of these he engraved himself, while others were drawn by him but engraved by his sister Thérèse Martinet (born c. 1731). He is best known for his engravings of birds for Comte de Buffon's, Histoire Naturelle Des Oiseaux published in Paris from 1770-86. In 1768, a comprehensive group of natural history studies drafted by Martinet, and engraved by Robert Bénard were included in the natural history volume of Diderot and Alembert’s Encyclopédie. Martinet also drew and engraved portraits, landscapes and genre scenes. (Ref: Tooley; M&B)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - off white
Age of map color: - Original
Colors used: - Green, blue, yellow
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 12in x 9in (305mm x 230mm)
Plate size: - 10in x 8in (255mm x 205mm)
Margins: - Min 1in (25mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - None
Verso: - None

$375.00 USD
More Info
1811 John Cary Large Old, Antique Map of The Great Lakes of North America

1811 John Cary Large Old, Antique Map of The Great Lakes of North America

  • Title : A New Map of Upper & Lower Canada by John Cary...1811
  • Ref #:  61107
  • Size: 26in x 21 1/2in (660mm x 550mm)
  • Date : 1811
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition

Description: 
This large, beautifully hand coloured original antique map of the Great Lakes of North America was engraved by John Cary in 1811 - the date is engraved in the title cartouche - and was published in Cary's New Universal Atlas. (Ref Tooley M&B)

John Cary (1745 - 1835) many regard Cary as one of the finest English cartographers of his time. His maps are not as decorative in the 17th century sense, but he came to on the scene at a time when the large-scale English county maps had recently become available. His fine craftsmanship and ability as an engraver enabled him to produce not only fine English county maps but also world atlases, road maps, town and canal plans sea charts and terrestrial and celestial globes.

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - off white
Age of map color: - Original 
Colors used: - Green, yellow, pink
General color appearance: - Authentic 
Paper size: - 26in x 21 1/2in (660mm x 550mm)
Plate size: - 24in x 20 1/2in (610mm x 520mm) 
Margins: - Min 1in (25mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - None
Verso: - None

$625.00 USD
More Info
1772 Gibson & Sayer Large Antique Map of America - The French Indian War

1772 Gibson & Sayer Large Antique Map of America - The French Indian War

  • Title : A New Map of the Whole Continent of America. Divided Into North and South and West Indies, with a Descriptive Account of the European Possessions, as Settled by the Definitive Treaty of Peace Conducted at Paris Feby 10th 1763...Compiled from Mr D Anville...1772
  • Ref #:  92637
  • Size: 47 1/2in x 42 1/2in (1.20m x 1.08m)
  • Date : 1772
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition

Description: 
This rare, very large, hand coloured, original antique map of North & South America - resulting from the outcome of the French & Indian War in North America & the Paris Treaty of 1763 - by John Gibson, was published by Robert Sayer London, in 1772.
Superbly detailed, impressive in size and beauty of design, with geographical detail based on the American maps by the famous French cartographer Jean Baptiste Bourguignon D'Anville, along with recent Spanish explorations in northern California.
The first edition (1763) and second edition (1772) of this map are extremely scarce and hard to find as many of these were working maps and would have been put to use by both the Military and Government. Other editions with revisions were published in 1777, 1783, 1786 & 1794 which emphasised the post revolutionary break up of North America, without the L&R text boxes. 
The Treaty of Paris was signed between Britain, France, and Spain, reshaping the map of North America and ending the colonial phase of the Seven Years' War. France, defeated in the New World and frustrated in its war against Prussia, lost all claims to Canada and gave Louisiana to Spain, while Britain received Spanish Florida, Upper Canada, and various French holdings overseas. France's adventure in India also came to an end, ensuring the colonial supremacy of Britain in coming decades. Five days after the Treaty of Paris, the Treaty of Hubertusburg was signed, acknowledging Prussia's right to the Polish province of Silesia, a claim that seven years earlier had started the war. 

Background: This is John Gibson's celebrated map of the New World, showing the European Possessions and the recently recognized boundaries of North & South as decreed by the 1763 Treaty of Paris. The text box on the left side of the map outlines some of the articles of the Paris Treaty of 1763. The text box on the right hand side shows the possessions of each European Power in North & South America. 
The map is one of the earliest obtainable English language wall maps of  Continental America.  It was periodically updated during the later part of the 18th Century, first to include the information and boundaries established at the conclusion of the French and Indian War in 1763, and later, after the American Revolution and the establishment of the United States.
The map provides a stark contrast between the known and unknown regions, with the eastern parts of North America quite well understood, whereas the mythical River of the West is still shown, seeking a continuous water course from the Atlantic to the Pacific.
The map also includes an excellent treatment of South America at the end of the Spanish Colonial empire, based in part on the recently published Cruz Cano y Olmedilla map of South America (Mapa Geográfico De America Meridional . . .).
Although the United States extends to the Mississippi, the province of Quebec appears to encroach on U.S. territory around the Great Lakes. Details of north-western North America are just beginning to emerge. The map shows a peninsular California, a Chinese colony ("Fou Sang") in British Columbia, and two possible locations for a "River of the West" (one with its source at Pike's lake; the other, further north at Lake Winnipeg).
The South America sheet includes an inset map of northern North America to Baffin's Bay, showing Greenland as part of the North American mainland.
The beautiful title cartouche is a baroque fantasy with New World flora, both temperate and tropical, beaver, alligator, and an Indian chieftain's headdress. (Ref: M&B; Tooley)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy & stable
Paper color: - White
Age of map color: - Original & later  
Colors used: - Yellow, green, red  
General color appearance: - Authentic   
Paper size: - 47 1/2in x 42 1/2in (1.20m x 1.08m)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (12mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - Folds & joins as issued
Verso: - Light age toning

$4,250.00 USD
More Info
1755 D Anville Large Old, Antique Map of North America, Great Lakes, Indian Wars

1755 D Anville Large Old, Antique Map of North America, Great Lakes, Indian Wars

  • Title : Canada Louisiane et Terres Anglois Par Le Sr. D Anville...MDCCLV
  • Ref #:  61106
  • Size: 46 1/2in x 35 3/4in (1.17m x 910mm)
  • Date : 1755
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition

Description:
This magnificent, scarce, very large (48in x 35in) & highly detail map of North America was engraved in 1755 - dated in the title cartouche - by George De La Haye and was published by Jean Baptiste Bourguignon D'Anville in his large elephant folio atlas Atlas Generale.
Geopolitically this map is extremely significant drawn as war between the Global Powers of the day, France, England & Spain, was breaking, known in Europe as the Seven Year War known in North America as the French & Indian war. (Please see below for more detail)


This map rivals John Mitchells "A Map of the British and French Dominions in North America published in 1755" - considered to be one of the most significant maps of North America published in the 18th & 19th centuries (a 1st edition of Mitchells map is currently for sale for $165,000).
I have included an image of the Mitchell map for comparison. The D' Anville map is considered by many to be cartographically superior to the Mitchell map, at a fraction of the price.

Background: This extraordinary map of the eastern half of North America extends from Newfoundland, Canada to St. Augustine, Florida, stretching westward beyond the Mississippi as far as modern day Texas. The map includes both the original colonial colonies along the Atlantic seaboard from Maine to Georgia and the French claims in Louisiana (the Mississippi Valley) and modern day Canada. Florida is acknowledged as a Spanish enclave. Elevation is rendered in profile with fortifications, towns, and American Indian villages identified. A large inset map centres on the course of the St. Lawrence River from the Isle Aux Coudres to Lake Ontario.
The is a very significant map, drawn from a definitive French perspective, defining the territorial alignments and claims within North America shortly following the outbreak of the French and Indian War, considered to be a New World reflection of the European Seven Years War. It is however notable that it began before the larger hostilities in Europe and most of the major battles involved primarily parties only loosely aligned with the French or English - most specifically American Indians and lawless frontiersman, who had their own political agenda.
The war began with French incursions into western Pennsylvania and other territories claimed simultaneously by the French, English and American Indian forces. Just prior to the war, the French, in the interest of broadening their hold on the lucrative fur trade, established a series of forts, all of which are here noted, along the length of the Mississippi and further east, including Fort Duquesne (here Fort de Quene, Pittsburgh), Fort de la Presquisle, and for Le Beouf (here, Fort de la Riv Jaus Beufs).
The map also recognizes British claims, only inland as far as the Appalachian Mountains, beyond which place names take on a noticeably French character. These last three forts occupied particularly contested territory under the control of the powerful British allied Iroquois League. The most contested of these was Fort Duquesne (modern day Pittsburgh) in direct opposition to another fort then being constructed by the Ohio Company, a trading and land speculation firm established by prominent Virginia colonials, including George Washington. The Virginian colonial governor responded to Duquesne by sending then Lieutenant George Washington and a band of Virginia militiamen to harass the French. The resulting Jumonville Affair, in which Washington oversaw an attack on a French Canadian diplomatic forces led by Joseph Coulon de Villiers de Jumonville, to warn the Ohio Company fort builders away from French claimed territory. The slaying of Jumonville and several other French diplomats prompted a response from French forces at Fort Duquesne, leading to Washington's retreat and construction of Fort Necessity, really little more than a palisaded shack, marked here just south of Fort Duquesne. These events, all of which occurred in May of 1754, were said to have increased hostilities in Europe and led to the start of the Seven Year War in 1755.
Beyond the political agenda of this map, is the map itself, being one of the finest and most heavily detailed maps of North America published in the mid 18th century. Ranking alongside the large 1755 Mitchell map in detail but judged by many as cartographically superior. Drawing on both French and British cartographical detail, D' Anville identifies countless American Indian tribes, many of which, like the Sioux and Missouri, the British had only vague knowledge. Moreover, he also includes detail such as swamps, rapids, fords, abandoned villages, and even the ancient remnants of mound builder culture in the Ohio Valley. D' Anville notably does not include Mitchell's fictional Lake Superior islands.
This map was originally published to accompany the pamphlet entitledMemoire sur la carte intitulee: Canada, Louisiane, & Terres angloises and was also published in four parts for D' Anville's Atlas General.

These large maps are hard to find in such good condition and make fantastic historical reference tools due to the size and high level of detail as with all D' Anvilles work. (Ref: Tooley, M&B)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - White
Age of map color: -  Original & late
Colors used: -  Yellow, green, pink
General color appearance: -  Authentic
Paper size: - 46 1/2in x 35 3/4in (1.17m x 910mm)
Plate size: - 45in x 35in (1.12m x 890mm)
Margins: - Min 1in (25mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - Light soiling & ceasing along folds
Verso: - Light soiling

$4,750.00 USD
More Info
1757 Bellin Antique Map & View of the City of Salvador, Brazil

1757 Bellin Antique Map & View of the City of Salvador, Brazil

  • Title : Plan De La Ville de De St Salvador Capitale du Bresil
  • Ref #:  61100
  • Size: 14in x 10in (355mm x 255mm)
  • Date : 1757
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition

Description: 
This beautifully hand coloured original antique map* and view of the Brazilian City of Salvador - with building index - by Jacques Nicolas Bellin was published in the 1757 French & Dutch edition of Antoine-François Prevosts 20 volume L`Histoire Generale des Voyages published by Pierre de Hondt in the Hague between 1747 & 1785.

Background: Salvador, also known as São Salvador, Salvador de Bahia, and Salvador da Bahia (Brazilian Portugueseis the capital of the Brazilian state of Bahia. With 2.9 million people (2013), it is the largest city proper in the Northeast Region and the 3rd-largest city proper in the country, after São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro.
Salvador lies on a small, roughly triangular peninsula that separates the Bay of All Saints from the Atlantic Ocean. The bay is the largest in Brazil and the 2nd-largest in the world. It was first reached by Gaspar de Lemos in 1501, just one year after Cabral's purported discovery of Brazil. During his second voyage for Portugal, the  Italian  explorer Amerigo Vespucci sighted the bay on All Saints' Day (November 1) 1502 and, in honor of the date and his parish church in Florence, he named it the Bay of the Holy Savior of All the Saints. The first European to settle nearby was Diogo Álvares Correia  ("Caramuru"), who was shipwrecked off the end of the peninsula in 1509. He lived among the Tupinambá, marrying Guaibimpara and others. In 1531, Martim Afonso de Sousa led an expedition from Mount St Paul (Morro de São Paulo) and, in 1534,Francisco Pereira Coutinho, the first captain of Bahia, established the settlement of Pereira in modern Salvador's Ladeira da Barra neighborhood. Mistreatment of the Tupinambá by the settlers caused them to turn hostile and the Portuguese were forced to flee to Porto Seguro c. 1546. An attempted restoration of the colony the next year ended in shipwreck and cannibalism.
The present city was established as the fortress of Sao Salvador da Bahia de Todos os Santos ("Holy Savior of the Bay of All Saints") in 1549 by Portuguese settlers  under Tomé de Sousa, Brazil's first governor-general. It is one of the oldest cities founded by Europeans in the Americas. From a cliff overlooking the Bay of All Saints, it served as Brazil's first capital and quickly became a major port for its slave trade  and sugarcane industry. Salvador was long divided into an upper and a lower city, divided by a sharp escarpment some 85 meters (279 ft) high. The upper city formed the administrative, religious, and primary residential districts while the lower city was the commercial center, with a port and market.
In the Catholic Church, Brazil and the rest of the Portuguese Empire were initially administered as part of the Diocese of Funchal in Portugal but, in 1551, Salvador became the seat of the first Catholic diocese erected in Brazil. The first parish church was the mud-and-thatch Church of Our Lady of Help (Igreja da Nossa Senhora da Ajuda) erected by the Jesuits, which served as the first cathedral of the diocese until the Jesuits finished construction of the original basilica on the Terreiro de Jesus in 1553. Its bishop was made independent of Lisbon at the request of King Pedro II in 1676; he served as the primate of Congo and Angola until the elevation of Luanda on 13 January 1844 and still serves as the national primate of Brazil.
In 1572, the Governorate of Brazil was divided into the separate governorates of Bahia in the north and Rio de Janeiro in the south. These were reunited as Brazil six years later, then redivided from 1607 to 1613. By that time, Portugal had become united with Spain and was ruled from Madrid by its kings. In 1621, King Philip III  replaced the Governorate of Brazil with the states of Brazil, still based in Salvador and now controlling the south, and the Maranhão, which was centered on São Luís and controlled what is now northern Brazil. As Spain was then prosecuting a war against the independence of the Dutch, the Dutch East and West India companies tried to conquer Brazil from them. Salvador played a strategically vital role against Dutch Brazil, but was captured and sacked by a West India Company fleet under Jacob Willekens and Piet Hein on 10 May 1624. Johan van Dorth administered the colony before his assassination, freeing its slaves. The city was recaptured by a Luso-Spanish fleet under Fadrique Álvarez de Toledo y Mendoza on 1 May 1625. John Maurice's two subsequent attempts to retake the town in April and May of 1638 were unsuccessful.
In 1763, the colonial administration was removed to Rio de Janeiro and elevated to a viceroyalty. Salvador remained the heart of the Recôncavo, Bahia's rich agricultural maritime district, but was largely outside Brazil's early modernization. The area formed a center of royal support against Pedro I's declaration of independence on September 7, 1822. Its elites initially remained loyal to the Portuguese crown while rebels from Cachoeira besieged them for a year until finally receiving Portugal's surrender of the town on July 2, 1823, which is now celebrated as Bahia Independence Day. The local elite was similarly hesitant during Manuel Deodoro da Fonseca's coup that established the republic by in 1889.
Owing to whales' use of the Bay of All Saints as a mating ground, Salvador became a large whaling port during the 19th century but the trade had already begun to fall off by the 1870s.
Under the empire and republic, however, the town slowly began to industrialize. In 1873, Brazil's first elevator, the powerful hydraulic Elevador Lacerda, was constructed to connect the city's upper and lower towns. Having undergone several upgrades, it continues in use. By the First World War, it was joined by a second elevato and Salvador was connected to four railroads: the Bahia & Alagoinhas to Joazeiro, the Bahia Central, the Nazareth Tramway, and a short line to Santo Amaro. Its central districts and the major suburbs of Bomsim and Victoria were served by four streetcar lines, which had begun to electrify. It also served as a port of call for most steamship lines trading between Europe and South America. (Ref: Tooley; M&B)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - off white
Age of map color: - Early
Colors used: - Yellow, green, red, brown.
General color appearance: - Authentic and fresh
Paper size: - 14in x 10in (355mm x 255mm)
Plate size: - 12in x 8in (305mm x 205mm)
Margins: - Min 1in (25mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - Folds as issued
Verso: - None

$175.00 USD
More Info
1757 Nicolas Bellin Original Antique Map of Arcadia in Nova Scotia, Canada

1757 Nicolas Bellin Original Antique Map of Arcadia in Nova Scotia, Canada

Description: 
This beautifully hand coloured originalantique map* of Arcadia, Nova Scotia, Canada by Jacques Nicolas Bellin was engraved in 1757 - the date is engraved in the title cartouche - and was published in the 1757 French edition of Antoine-François Prevosts 20 volume L`Histoire Generale des Voyages published by Pierre de Hondt in the Hague between 1747 & 1785.

Background : Acadia was a colony of New France in north-eastern North America that included parts of eastern Quebec, the Maritime provinces, and modern-day Maine to the Kennebec River. During much of the 17th and early 18th centuries, Norridgewock on the Kennebec River and Castine at the end of the Penobscot River were the southernmost settlements of Acadia. The actual specification by the French government for the territory refers to lands bordering the Atlantic coast, roughly between the 40th and 46th parallels. Later, the territory was divided into the British colonies which became Canadian provinces and American states. The population of Acadia included members of the Wabanaki Confederacy and descendants of emigrants from France (i.e., Acadians). The two communities intermarried, which resulted in a significant portion of the population of Acadia being Métis.
The first capital of Acadia, established in 1605, was Port-Royal. A British force from Virginia attacked and burned down the town in 1613 but it was later rebuilt nearby, where it remained the longest serving capital of French Acadia until the British Siege of Port Royal in 1710. Over seventy-four years there were six colonial wars, in which English and later British interests tried to capture Acadia starting with King William's War in 1689. During these wars, along with some French troops from Quebec, some Acadians, the Wabanaki Confederacy, and French priests continuously raided New England settlements along the border in Maine. While Acadia was officially conquered in 1710 during Queen Anne's War, present-day New Brunswick and much of Maine remained contested territory. Present-day Prince Edward Island (Île Saint-Jean) and Cape Breton (Île Royale) as agreed under Article XIII of the Treaty of Utrecht remained under French control. By militarily defeating the Wabanaki Confederacy and the French priests, present-day Maine fell during Father Rale's War. During King George's War, France and New France made significant attempts to regain mainland Nova Scotia. After Father Le Loutre's War, present-day New Brunswick fell to the British. Finally, during the French and Indian War (the North American theatre of the Seven Years' War), both Île Royale and Île Saint-Jean fell to the British in 1758.
Today, the term Acadia is used to refer to regions of North America that are historically associated with the lands, descendants, and/or culture of the former French region. It particularly refers to regions of The Maritimes with French roots, language, and culture, primarily in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the Magdalen Islands and Prince Edward Island, as well as in Maine It can also be used to refer to the Acadian diasporain southern Louisiana, a region also referred to as Acadiana. In the abstract, Acadia refers to the existence of a French culture in any of these regions.
People living in Acadia, and sometimes former residents and their descendants, are called Acadians, also later known as Cajuns after resettlement in Louisiana.

Antoine François Prévost d'Exiles  1697 - 1763, usually known simply as the Abbé Prévost, was a French author and novelist. (Ref: Tooley; M&B)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - off white
Age of map color: - Original 
Colors used: - Yellow, green, red, brown.
General color appearance: - Authentic and fresh
Paper size: - 15in x 10in (380mm x 255mm)
Plate size: - 13 1/2in x 9in (345mm x 230mm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (12mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - Folds as issued
Verso: - None

$275.00 USD
More Info
1757 Bellin Antique Map - Plan of The City of New Orleans, Louisiana, USA

1757 Bellin Antique Map - Plan of The City of New Orleans, Louisiana, USA

Description: 
This beautifully hand coloured original antique map* a scarce, early plan of the city of New Orleans, Louisiana by Jacques Nicolas Bellin was published in the 1757 French edition of Antoine-François Prevosts 20 volume L`Histoire Generale des Voyages published by Pierre de Hondt in the Hague between 1747 & 1785.

Background: This scarce 1757 map by Bellin is one of the earliest obtainable maps of New Orleans. Oriented to the east, Bellin's map covers the original settlement of New Orleans along the Mississippi River and inland as far theFosse plein d'eau (roughly translated: 'Pit full of Water') near modern day Dauphine Street, and from modern day Iberville Street (shown but not named) to modern day Barracks Street (shown but not named). The map shows some 100 buildings with some 18 specifically identified via an alphabetically coded table set just above the map.
Among the locations noted in the key is one that provides an eerie echo of the slave trade. Item Q is identified as Cabanes des Negroes qui prennent soin Moulin or 'Cabins of Negros that care for mill.' Note how these cabins, as well as the adjacent mill, are both well outside the ordered structure of the city as well as conveniently located near the Corps de Garde des Bourgeois

Antoine François Prévost d'Exiles  1697 - 1763, usually known simply as the Abbé Prévost, was a French author and novelist. (Ref: Tooley; M&B)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - off white
Age of map color: - Original
Colors used: - Yellow, green, red, brown.
General color appearance: - Authentic and fresh
Paper size: - 14 1/2in x 10in (360mm x 255mm)
Plate size: - 11in x 8in (280mm x 205mm)
Margins: - Min 1in (25mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - Folds as issued, printers crease along left fold
Verso: - None

$475.00 USD
More Info
1757 Bellin Antique Map Great lakes of United States & Canada, French Indian War

1757 Bellin Antique Map Great lakes of United States & Canada, French Indian War

Description: 
This beautifully hand coloured originalantique map* of The Great Lakes of Canada and the US by Jacques Nicolas Bellin, was engraved in 1757 - the date is engraved in the title cartouche - and was published in the 1757 French edition of Antoine-François Prevosts 20 volume L`Histoire Generale des Voyages published by Pierre de Hondt in the Hague between 1747 & 1785.

Background: Very attractive French & Indian War period map of the Great Lakes drawn under the direction of Jacques Nicolas Bellin (1703-1772) the Royal Hydrographer to the King & Director of the Dept. de La Marine in Paris. Bellin's first map of the Lakes was drawn in 1744 from sketches by P. F. X. De Charlevoix (1682-1761), a French Jesuit Missionary who traveled on foot & canoe extensively throughout the area. Since then a number of updated editions were published but the three apocryphal islands in Lake Superior - Isle St. Anne, Isle Ponchartrain & Isle Maurepas drawn in the Lake by de Charlevoix had not yet been eliminated from the map, which includes the River & Settlement at Chicagou on Lake Michigan's southwest shore, & Le Detroit on the Detroit River where it flows into Lake Erie. The Michigan peninsula is still misshapen with a massive mountain range down its center.Lac Alimipegon appears north of Lake Superior. Numerous forts are located:S. Ignace, Niagara, des Miamis, and Toronto to mention a few.

Antoine François Prévost d'Exiles  1697 - 1763, usually known simply as the Abbé Prévost, was a French author and novelist. (Ref: Tooley; M&B)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - off white
Age of map color: - Early
Colors used: - Yellow, green, red, brown.
General color appearance: - Authentic and fresh
Paper size: - 14in x 10in (355mm x 255mm)
Plate size: - 12in x 8 1/2in (305mm x 210mm)
Margins: - Min 1in (25mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - Folds as issued
Verso: - None

$549.00 USD
More Info
1757 Bellin Antique Map The Colonial United States, Louisiana, Texas, New Mexico

1757 Bellin Antique Map The Colonial United States, Louisiana, Texas, New Mexico

Description: 
This beautifully hand coloured original antique map of The Colonial United States, from the Great Lakes to Louisiana, Texas and New Mexico was engraved in 1757 - the date is engraved in the title cartouche - and was published in the 1757 French edition of Antoine-François Prevosts 20 volume L`Histoire Generale des Voyages published by Pierre de Hondt in the Hague between 1747 & 1785. 
Antoine François Prévost d'Exiles  1697 - 1763, usually known simply as the Abbé Prévost, was a French author and novelist. (Ref: Tooley; M&B) 

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - white
Age of map color: - Early
Colors used: - Green, yellow, red
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 14in x 10in (365mm x 260mm)
Plate size: - 12 1/2in x 9 1/2in (320mm x 230mm)
Margins: - min. 1/2in (12mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - Folds as issued
Verso: - None

$575.00 USD
More Info
1756 Bellin Antique Map - Plan of The City of Boston & Charlestown

1756 Bellin Antique Map - Plan of The City of Boston & Charlestown

Description: 
This beautifully hand coloured original antique map of Boston and surrounding areas - one of the earliest obtainable maps of the city - by Jacques-Nicholas Bellin in 1756 was published in the 1757 French edition of Antoine-François Prevosts 20 volume L`Histoire Generale des Voyages published by Pierre de Hondt in the Hague between 1747 & 1785.

Antoine François Prévost d'Exiles  1697 - 1763, usually known simply as the Abbé Prévost, was a French author and novelist. (Ref: Tooley; M&B)

Background:
Beautifully hand coloured map with great street and building detail in both  Boston and Charlestown, showing parts of Ronde Isle and the mainland. Important buildings and areas identified in the index at the left of the map. Including three cannon batteries, the Presbyterian Church, the Quaker temple, the Anabaptist Church, the City Hall, the Armory, Faneuil Hall (Spelled Fanal), etc. (Ref: Tooley; M&B)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - off white
Age of map color: - Early
Colors used: - Yellow, green, red, brown.
General color appearance: - Authentic and fresh
Paper size: - 14in x 10in (355mm x 255mm)
Plate size: - 11in x 7 1/4in (280mm x 185mm)
Margins: - Min ½in (7mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - Folds as issued
Verso: - None

$475.00 USD
More Info
1757 Bellin Antique Map of Georgia, Carolinas, Virginia United States of America

1757 Bellin Antique Map of Georgia, Carolinas, Virginia United States of America

Description: 
This beautifully hand coloured original antique map* of Georgia, North & South Carolina by Jacques Nicolas Bellin, was engraved in 1757 - the date is engraved in the title cartouche - and was published in the 1757 French edition of Antoine-François Prevosts 20 volume L`Histoire Generale des Voyages published by Pierre de Hondt in the Hague between 1747 & 1785.

Antoine François Prévost d'Exiles  1697 - 1763, usually known simply as the Abbé Prévost, was a French author and novelist. (Ref: Tooley; M&B)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - off white
Age of map color: - Early
Colors used: - Yellow, green, red, brown.
General color appearance: - Authentic and fresh
Paper size: - 14in x 10in (355mm x 255mm)
Plate size: - 12in x 8in (305mm x 205mm)
Margins: - Min 1in (25mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - Folds as issued
Verso: - None

$375.00 USD
More Info
1752 Bellin Antique Map of The Marianas Islands & the Island of Guam

1752 Bellin Antique Map of The Marianas Islands & the Island of Guam

  • Title : Carte De L Archipel de St Lazare ou les Isles Marianes...1752
  • Ref #:  61066
  • Size: 10in x 7 1/2in (255mm x 185mm)
  • Date : 1752
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition

Description: 
This beautifully hand coloured originalantique map* of the Marianas Islands with a large inset map of Guam was engraved byJacques Nicolas Bellin in 1752 - the date is engraved in the title cartouche - for the 1756 French/Dutch edition of Antoine-François Prevosts L`Histoire Generale des Voyagespublished in 20 volumes by Pierre de Hondt in The Hague between 1747 & 1785.

The Mariana Islands (also the Marianas) are a crescent-shaped  archipelago comprising the summits of fifteen mostly dormant volcanic mountains in the western North Pacific Ocean, between the 12th and 21st parallels north and along the 145th meridian east. They lie south-southeast of Japan, west-southwest of Hawaii, north of New Guinea and east of the Philippines, demarcating the Philippine Sea's eastern limit. They are found in the northern part of the western Oceanic sub-region of Micronesia, and are politically divided into two jurisdictions of the United States: the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands and, at the southern end of the chain, the territory of Guam.
The islands were named after Queen Mariana by Spaniards, who first arrived in the early 16th century and who eventually annexed and colonized the archipelago. The indigenous inhabitants are the Chamoru. Archaeologists in 2013 reported findings which indicated the people who first settled the Marianas arrived there after making what was at that time the longest uninterrupted ocean voyage in human history. They further reported findings which suggested that Tinian is likely to have been the first island in Oceania to have been settled by humans.

Antoine François Prévost d'Exiles  1697 - 1763, usually known simply as the Abbé Prévost, was a French author and novelist. (Ref: Tooley; M&B)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - off white
Age of map color: - Early
Colors used: - Yellow, green, red, brown.
General color appearance: - Authentic and fresh
Paper size: - 10in x 7 1/2in (255mm x 190mm)
Plate size: - 9 1/2n x 7in (240mm x 180mm)
Margins: - Min ½in (12mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - None
Verso: - None

$99.00 USD
More Info
1752 Nicolas Bellin Original Antique Map of The Philippine Island of Luzon &....

1752 Nicolas Bellin Original Antique Map of The Philippine Island of Luzon &....

Description:
This fine, original copper-plate engraved antique map of the main Philippine island of Luzon & the smaller southern islands by Jacques Nicolas Bellin in 1752 was published in Antoine François Prevosts 15 volumes of Histoire Generale des Voyages written by Prevost & other authors between 1746-1790.

Luzon was once split among Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms, Muslim principalities, and ethnoreligious tribes, who had trading connections with Borneo, Malaya, Java, Indochina, India, Okinawa, Korea, Japan and China before the Spanish established their rule. From just before the first millennium, the Tagalog and Kapampangan peoples of south and central Luzon had established several major coastal polities, most notable among them those of Maynila, Tondo and Namayan. The Laguna Copperplate Inscription, the first Philippine document written in 900AD, names places in and around Manila Bay as well as Medan in Indonesia. These kingdoms were based on leases between village rulers (Datu) and landlords (Lakan) or Rajahs, to whom tributes and taxes were levied. These kingdoms were coastal thalassocracies based on trade with neighboring Asian political entities at that time. Some parts of Luzon were Islamized when the Sultanate of Brunei expanded its realms from Borneo to the Philippines and set up the Kingdom of Maynila as its puppet-state. In addition, other kingdoms like the Wangdom of Pangasinan had become tributary states to China and were largely Sinified kingdoms.
According to sources at the time, the trade in large native Ruson-tsukuri clay jars used for storing green tea and rice wine with Japan flourished in the 12th century, and local Tagalog, Kapampangan and Pangasinense potters had marked each jar with Baybayin letters denoting the particular urn used and the kiln the jars were manufactured in. Certain kilns were renowned over others and prices depended on the reputation of the kiln. Of this flourishing trade, the Burnay jars of Ilocos are the only large clay jar manufactured in Luzon today with origins from this time.
The Yongle Emperor instituted a Chinese Governor on Luzon during Zheng He\'s voyages and appointed Ko Ch\'a-lao to that position in 1405. China also had vassals among the leaders in the archipelago. China attained ascendancy in trade with the area in Yongle\'s reign.
In the 1500s, people from Luzon were called Lucoes and were actively employed in trading, seafaring and military campaigns across Southeast Asia.
The Portuguese were the first European explorers who recorded it in their charts as Luçonia or Luçon and inhabitants were called Luçoes.[16] Edmund Roberts, who visited Luzon in the early 19th century, wrote that Luzon was \"discovered\" in 1521. Many people from Luzon had active-employment in Portuguese Malacca. Lucoes such as the Luzon spice trader Regimo de Raja, based in Malacca, was highly influential and the Portuguese appointed him as Temenggong (Sea Lord) or a governor and police-chief general responsible for overseeing of maritime trade, at Malacca. His father and wife carried on his maritime trading business after his death. Another important Malacca trader was Curia de Raja who also hailed from Luzon. The \"surname\" of \"de Raja\" or \"diraja\" could indicate that Regimo and Curia, and their families, were of noble or royal descent as the term is an abbreviation of Sanskrit adiraja.
Pinto noted that there were a number of Lucoes in the Islamic fleets that went to battle with the Portuguese in the Philippines during the 16th century. The Sultan of Aceh gave one of them (Sapetu Diraja) the task of holding Aru (northeast Sumatra) in 1540. Pinto also says one was named leader of the Malays remaining in the Moluccas Islands after the Portuguese conquest in 1511. Pigafetta notes that one of them was in command of the Brunei fleet in 1521.
However, the Luções did not only fight on the side of the Muslims. Pinto says they were also apparently among the natives of the Philippines who fought the Muslims in 1538.
On Mainland Southeast Asia, Lusung/Lucoes warriors aided the Burmese king in his invasion of Siam in 1547 AD. At the same time, Lusung warriors fought alongside the Siamese king and faced the same elephant army of the Burmese king in the defence of the Siamese capital at Ayuthaya.
Scholars have thus suggested that they could be mercenaries valued by all sides.
The Spanish arrival in the 16th century saw the incorporation of the Lucoes people and the breaking up of their kingdoms and the establishment of the Las Islas Filipinas with its capital Cebu, which was moved to Manila following the defeat of the local Rajah Sulayman in 1570. Under Spain, Luzon also came to be known as the Nueva Castilla or the New Castile.

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: - Early
Colors used: - Green, Yellow, 
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 10in x 7 1/2in (255mm x 185mm)
Plate size: - 9 1/2in x 6 1/2in (245mm x 165mm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (6mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - None
Verso: - None

Background: 
One of Antoine Francois Prevosts monumental undertakings was his history of exploration & discovery in 15 volumes titledHistoire Générale des Voyages written between 1746-1759 and was extended to 20 volumes after his death by various authors.
The 20 volumes cover the early explorations & discoveries on 3 continents: Africa (v. 1-5), Asia (v. 5-11), and America (v. 12-15) with material on the finding of the French, English, Dutch, and Portugese. 
A number of notable cartographers and engravers contributed to the copper plate maps and views to the 20 volumes including Nicolas Bellin, Jan Schley, Chedel, Franc Aveline, Fessard, and many others.
The African volumes cover primarily coastal countries of West, Southern, and Eastern Africa, plus the Congo, Madagascar, Arabia and the Persian Gulf areas. 
The Asian volumes cover China, Korea, Tibet, Japan, Philippines, and countries bordering the Indian Ocean. 
Volume 11 includes Australia and Antarctica. 
Volumes 12-15 cover voyages and discoveries in America, including the East Indies, South, Central and North America.
Volumes 16-20 include supplement volumes & tables along with continuation of voyages and discoveries in Russia, Northern Europe, America, Asia & Australia.

$199.00 USD
More Info