Middle East (9)

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1817 Capt. Norden & Lepetit Antique Atlas of Egypt & Nubia - 1 Map & 22 Prints

1817 Capt. Norden & Lepetit Antique Atlas of Egypt & Nubia - 1 Map & 22 Prints

Description:
This fine original antique French Atlas, Voyage d'Egypte et de Nubie, travels to Egypt and Nubia by the Dane, Captain Frederick Louis Norden was translated from the English by M Henry & M Breton and published by V Lepetit. Paris in 1817 - dated.
This atlas contains 1 map of Egypt, Nubia & the Course of the Nile plus 22 copper-plate engraved prints of city views, pyramids and ruins of Egypt, as listed below.
The atlas covers have been removed with front title page partially detached & damaged. Pages are generally clean, with some age toning, overall VG. Size 8vo, each page size is 7in x 5in (180mm x 125mm)

1. Cours du Nil Depuis le Sennaar
2. Vue de Ville d Alexandrie....
3. Vue de la Ville et du Port Neuf d Alexandrie....
4. Vue de la Vieille Alexandrie
5. A: Chateau d Aboukir B: Vue de cote de l Orient meridional C: Plan du Chateau vec son port
6. Fig1: Vue de la villede Rosette Fig 2: Chateau de Rosette Fig 3: Vue du village de Deruth
7. Perspective du Vieux Caire
8. Vue du vieux Caire et d'une Pyramide dans le lointain
9. Vue de la ville de Gize ci-devant Memphis....
10. Coupe du Mokian
11. Plan de l ile de Rodda
12. Village de Dair Etun
13. Vue des Pyramides proche du Caire
14. Vue des Pyramides de Memphis
15. Maisons ordinaires des Arabec
16. Ruines di Palais de Memmon
17. Portail antique plien de Hieroglyphes en couleur et ...
18. Ancien Temple au milieu de la ville d Esnay
19. Deux coupes sur la longueur des superbes..Ruines du temple d Tsia
20. Fig 1: Les Deux Colosses en particular Fig 2: Portail principal des antiquities de Luxor
21. Statues colossales et Ruines du Palais de Memnon
22. Vue des Tombeaux pres d Essouan
23. Maniere de Battre les ris et de porter lEau en Egypte

Frederick Norden sailed to Egypt in 1737-38 to survey the architecture, agriculture, and other curiosities of the country. He was the first European to penetrate as far as Derr in Nubia, and produced the first coherent maps of the country. Seventeen years later, long after Norden’s death, his maps and drawings were published by the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters, under order of Frederick V of Denmark, as Voyage d’Egypte et de Nubie (1755). Two years later, the physician and naturalist Peter Templeman completed an English translation, which was published in two folio volumes.

Frederic Louis Norden (1708 –1742) was a Danish naval captain and explorer.
Also known as FrederickFrederikFriderickLudwigLudvig and Lewis, the name used on the first publication of his famous Voyage d'Egypte et de Nubie (Copenhagen, 1755) is Frederic Louis Norden. His name is often shortened F. L. Norden.
Norden made a voyage through Egypt all the way down to Sudan in 1737–1738, on the request of King Christian VI of Denmark. Norden made abundant notes, observations and drawings of everything around him, including people, pharaonic monuments, architecture, installations, maps etc., all of which was published in the posthumous Voyage d'Egypte et de Nubie.
On 8 January 1741 he became a Fellow of the Royal Society of London, where his name was registered as Frederic Lewis Norden.

General Description:
 Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy, stable
 Paper color: - off white
 Age of map color: - 
 Colors used: - 
 General color appearance: - 
 Atlas size: - 8vo
 
 Imperfections:
 Margins: - Age toning
 Plate area: - Age toning
 Verso: - Age toning

$499.00 USD
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1830 Joseph Lemercier Large Antique Print of North African Bedouin Hunters

1830 Joseph Lemercier Large Antique Print of North African Bedouin Hunters

  • Title : L Afrique...Lith de Lemercier rue de Seine S G N 55...Paris chez Aumont, rue JJ Rousseau No. 10
  • Size: 23 1/2in x 17 1/2in (600mm x 445mm)
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition
  • Date : 1830
  • Ref #:  40447-1

Description:
This large original early antique lithograph print of North African Bedouin, hunting on horse back, surrounded by various vignette scenes of Bedouin life was printed and published by Joseph Lemercier in his rue de Seine printing premises in 1830.

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: -
Colors used: - Yellow, green, blue, pink
General color appearance: -
Paper size: - 23 1/2in x 17 1/2in (600mm x 445mm)
Plate size: - 23 1/2in x 17 1/2in (600mm x 445mm)
Margins: - Min 1in (25mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Light age toning
Plate area: - None
Verso: - Light age toning

Background: 
The Bedouin are a grouping of nomadic Arab peoples who have historically inhabited the desert regions in North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq and the Levant. The English word bedouin comes from the Arabic badawī, which means desert dweller, and is traditionally contrasted with ḥāḍir, the term for sedentary people. Bedouin territory stretches from the vast deserts of North Africa to the rocky sands of the Middle East. They are traditionally divided into tribes, or clans and share a common culture of herding camels and goats.
Historically, the Bedouin engaged in nomadic herding, agriculture and sometimes fishing. A major source of income was the taxation of caravans, and tributes collected from non-Bedouin settlements. They also earned income by transporting goods and people in caravans across the desert. Scarcity of water and of permanent pastoral land required them to move constantly.
The Moroccan traveller, Ibn Battuta, reported that in 1326 on the route to Gaza, the Egyptian authorities had a customs post at Qatya on the north coast of Sinai. Here Bedouin were being used to guard the road and track down those trying to cross the border without permission.
The Early Medieval grammarians and scholars seeking to develop a system of standardizing the contemporary Classical Arabic for maximal intelligibility across the Arabophone areas, believed that the Bedouin spoke the purest, most conservative variety of the language. To solve irregularities of pronunciation, the Bedouin were asked to recite certain poems, where-after consensus was relied on to decide the pronunciation and spelling of a given word.
A plunder and massacre of the Hajj caravan by Bedouin tribesmen occurred in 1757, led by Qa dan al-Fa\'iz of the Bani Saqr tribe. An estimated 20,000 pilgrims were either killed in the raid or died of hunger or thirst as a result. Although Bedouin raids on Hajj caravans were fairly common, the 1757 raid represented the peak of such attacks.
Under the Tanzimat reforms in 1858 a new Ottoman Land Law was issued, which offered legal grounds for the displacement of the Bedouin. As the Ottoman Empire gradually lost power, this law instituted an unprecedented land registration process that was also meant to boost the empire\'s tax base. Few Bedouin opted to register their lands with the Ottoman Tapu, due to lack of enforcement by the Ottomans, illiteracy, refusal to pay taxes and lack of relevance of written documentation of ownership to the Bedouin way of life at that time.
At the end of the 19th century Sultan Abdülhamid II settled Muslim populations (Circassians) from the Balkan and Caucasus among areas predominantly populated by the nomads in the regions of modern Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, and Palestine, and also created several permanent Bedouin settlements, although the majority of them did not remain.
Ottoman authorities also initiated private acquisition of large plots of state land offered by the sultan to the absentee landowners (effendis). Numerous tenants were brought in order to cultivate the newly acquired lands. Often it came at the expense of the Bedouin lands.
In the late 19th century, many Bedouin began transition to a semi-nomadic lifestyle. One of the factors was the influence of the Ottoman empire authorities who started a forced sedentarization of the Bedouin living on its territory. The Ottoman authorities viewed the Bedouin as a threat to the state\'s control and worked hard on establishing law and order in the Negev. During World War I, the Negev Bedouin fought with the Turks against the British, but later, under T. E. Lawrence\'s assist, the Bedouins switched side and fought the Turks. Hamad Pasha al-Sufi (died 1923), Sheikh of the Nijmat sub-tribe of the Tarabin, led a force of 1,500 men who joined the Turkish offensive against the Suez Canal.
In Orientalist historiography, the Negev Bedouin have been described as remaining largely unaffected by changes in the outside world until recently. Their society was often considered a world without time. Recent scholars have challenged the notion of the Bedouin as fossilized, or stagnant reflections of an unchanging desert culture. Emanuel Marx has shown that Bedouin were engaged in a constantly dynamic reciprocal relation with urban centers. Bedouin scholar Michael Meeker explains that the city was to be found in their midst.

Lemercier, Joseph Rose 1803-1887
Lemercier was an early influential lithographer & printer who founded the large firm of Lemercier and Cie in the first part of the 19th century.
Lemercier began his career in the printing business with an apprenticeship at Langlumé from 1822 to 1825, before becoming foreman at the house of Formentin. In 1827 . Lemercier started his own printing business. He was responsible for the publication of many large superb lithographs and his work is highly sorted after, due to its high standard of technical and artistic skill. His firm entered a number of partnerships over the years at various number of Paris addresses. Please see details below.

Also known as; 
Lemercier & Cie;
Lemercier & Co;
Lemercier Benard et Cie;
Lemercier Bernard & C;
Lemercier, J & A; J & A Lemercier; Lemercier, A;
Lemercier, Benard & Cie;
Lemercier

Addresses:
Rue Pierre Sarrasin, No.2 (c.1829) Before 1835 rue du Four S.G. 55 55 (later 57) rue de Seine, Paris, in partnership with Bénard (1829-36)
55 rue du Four-Saint-Germain, Paris (1840) 57 rue de Seine (later)

$475.00 USD
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1787 D Anville & Niebuhr V. Large Antique Map of The Red Sea Suez, Saudi Arabia

1787 D Anville & Niebuhr V. Large Antique Map of The Red Sea Suez, Saudi Arabia

  • Title : Karte des Arabischen Meerbusens oder des Rothen Meeres...MDCCLXXXVII (1787)
  • Ref #:  61154
  • Size: 31in x 23in (790mm x 585mm)
  • Date : 1787
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition

Description: 
This very large, handsome original antique map of the Red Sea, with original decorative colour, from the town of Suez in the north to the Persian Gulf by Jean Baptiste Bourguignon D'Anville, after Carsten Niebuhr, was engraved by Henri Benedicti (in 1787, dated in title) and published by Franz Anton Schraembl (1751-1803) in his large scale Allgemeiner grosser Atlas.
The map is testimony to German cartography & engraving, both beautifully executed with superb original hand colouring. The map is adorned with inset maps of the Gulf of Suez and another scaled map of the Red Sea.

Background: The original author of this map Carsten Niebuhr (1733 - 1815) was a German born mathematician who lived in Denmark from 1760. In 1761 he was sent on a scientific expedition sponsored by Frederick V of Denmark to Egypt, Arabia and Syria together with five other scientists.
Niebuhr was the only one to survive the Danish, Arabic expedition. He returned to Copenhagen in 1767 and published the new discoveries in 1773 in 'Beschreibung von Arabien'. The work was followed with two other volumes with descriptions and maps of Arabian Peninsula in both 1774 and 1778. (Ref: Norwich; Tooley; M&B)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - off white
Age of map color: - Original 
Colors used: -  Green, yellow, red, brown
General color appearance: -  Original
Paper size: - 31in x 23in (790mm x 585mm)
Plate size: - 27 1/2in x 19 3/4in (700mm x 500mm)
Margins: - Min 2in (50mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - None
Verso: - None

$475.00 USD
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1650 Nicolas Sanson Antique Map of The Holy Lands, Canaan

1650 Nicolas Sanson Antique Map of The Holy Lands, Canaan

Description:
This beautifully hand coloured original antique map of the Holy Land and the Land of Canaan was engraved by Jon Somer and was published by Nicholas Sanson in the 1650 edition ofCartes Generales de Toutes les Parties du Monde. 

Canaan is an ancient term for a region encompassing modern-day Israel, Lebanon, the Palestinian territories and adjoining coastal lands, including parts of Jordan, Syria and northeastern Egypt. In the Hebrew Bible, the "Land of Canaan" extends from Lebanon southward across Gaza to the "Brook of Egypt" and eastward to the Jordan River Valley. In far ancient times, the southern area included various ethnic groups. The Amarna Letters found in Ancient Egypt mention Canaan (Akkadian: Kinaḫḫu) in connection with Gaza and other cities along the Phoenician coast and into Upper Galilee. Many earlier Egyptian sources also mention numerous military campaigns conducted in Ka-na-na, just inside Asia. (Ref:Tooley; Koeman)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - White
Age of map color: - Original & later color
Colors used: - Yellow, green, pink
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 22 1/2in x 17 1/2in (570mm x 445mm)
Plate size: - 22in x 16 1/2in (560mm x 420mm)
Margins: - Min 1/4in (6mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - Worm holes repair to top & bottom centrefold
Verso: - None

$375.00 USD
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1575 Sebastian Munster Antique Map View of Cairo under The Ottoman Empire

1575 Sebastian Munster Antique Map View of Cairo under The Ottoman Empire

  • Title : Warhaffte abcontrafehtung der machtigen und vesten Statt Alkair
  • Size: 16in x 12 1/2in (405mm x 320mm)
  • Condition: (B) Good Condition
  • Date : 1575
  • Ref #:  91302

Description:
This original wood-block engraved antique double page view of Cairo, as it looked in the mid 16th century under Ottoman rule, was published in the early 1575 edition of Sebastian Munsters Cosmographia by Sebastian Petri, Basle.

Sebastian Petris re-release of Cosomgraphia in 1588 produced some fine woodcut maps in the copperplate style. The maps in this release were more sophisticated than with earlier publications of Cosomgraphia and were based on the 1570 release of Abraham Ortelius monumental work Theatrum Orbis Terrarum. For a variety of reasons town plans were comparatively latecomers in the long history of cartography. Few cities in Europe in the middle ages had more than 20,00 inhabitants and even London in the late Elizabethan period had only 100-150,000 people which in itself was probably 10 times that of any other English city. The Nuremberg Chronicle in 1493 included one of the first town views of Jerusalem, thereafter, for most of the sixteenth century, German cartographers led the way in producing town plans in a modern sense. In 1544 Sebastian Munster issued in Basle his Cosmographia containing roughly sixty-six plans and views, some in the plan form, but many in the old panorama or birds eye view. (Ref: Tooley; M&B)

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: -
Colors used: -
General color appearance: -
Paper size: - 16in x 12 1/2in (405mm x 320mm)
Plate size: - 16in x 12 1/2in (405mm x 320mm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (10mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - L&R bottom margin restored
Plate area: - 4 small tears repaired in center of image
Verso: - Restoration as noted, light age toning

Background: 
Cairo is the capital of Egypt. The city\'s metropolitan area is one of the largest in Africa, the largest in the Middle East and the Arab world, and the 15th-largest in the world, and is associated with ancient Egypt, as the famous Giza pyramid complex and the ancient city of Memphis are located in its geographical area. Located near the Nile Delta, modern Cairo was founded in 969 CE by the Fatimid dynasty, but the land composing the present-day city was the site of ancient national capitals whose remnants remain visible in parts of Old Cairo. Cairo has long been a center of the region\'s political and cultural life, and is titled the city of a thousand minarets for its preponderance of Islamic architecture.
Although Cairo avoided Europes stagnation during the Late Middle Ages, it could not escape the Black Death, which struck the city more than fifty times between 1348 and 1517. During its initial, and most deadly waves, approximately 200,000 people were killed by the plague, and by the 15th century, Cairos population had been reduced to between 150,000 and 300,000. The citys status was further diminished after Vasco da Gama discovered a sea route around the Cape of Good Hope between 1497 and 1499, thereby allowing spice traders to avoid Cairo. Cairo\'s political influence diminished significantly after the Ottomans supplanted Mamluk power over Egypt in 1517. Ruling from Constantinople, Sultan Selim I relegated Egypt to a province, with Cairo as its capital. For this reason, the history of Cairo during Ottoman times is often described as inconsequential, especially in comparison to other time periods. However, during the 16th and 17th centuries, Cairo remained an important economic and cultural centre. Although no longer on the spice route, the city facilitated the transportation of Yemeni coffee and Indian textiles, primarily to Anatolia, North Africa, and the Balkans. Cairene merchants were instrumental in bringing goods to the barren Hejaz, especially during the annual hajj to Mecca. It was during this same period that al-Azhar University reached the predominance among Islamic schools that it continues to hold today; pilgrims on their way to hajj often attested to the superiority of the institution, which had become associated with Egypt\'s body of Islamic scholars. By the 16th century, Cairo also had high-rise apartment buildings where the two lower floors were for commercial and storage purposes and the multiple stories above them were rented out to tenants.
Under the Ottomans, Cairo expanded south and west from its nucleus around the Citadel. The city was the second-largest in the empire, behind Constantinople, and, although migration was not the primary source of Cairo\'s growth, twenty percent of its population at the end of the 18th century consisted of religious minorities and foreigners from around the Mediterranean. Still, when Napoleon arrived in Cairo in 1798, the city\'s population was less than 300,000, forty percent lower than it was at the height of Mamluk—and Cairene—influence in the mid-14th century.
The French occupation was short-lived as British and Ottoman forces, including a sizeable Albanian contingent, recaptured the country in 1801. Cairo itself was besieged by a British and Ottoman force culminating with the French surrender on 22 June 1801. The British vacated Egypt two years later, leaving the Ottomans, the Albanians, and the long-weakened Mamluks jostling for control of the country. Continued civil war allowed an Albanian named Muhammad Ali Pasha to ascend to the role of commander and eventually, with the approval of the religious establishment, viceroy of Egypt in 1805.

$299.00 USD
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1719 Chatelain Large Antique Print Views of Cairo, Egypt - Nile

1719 Chatelain Large Antique Print Views of Cairo, Egypt - Nile

  • Title : Vue de la Ville Du Grand Caire et de ses Environs
  • Ref #:  50650
  • Size: 20in x 17 1/2in (510mm x 445mm)
  • Date : 1719
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition

Description:
This large finely engraved original antique print of various views of Cairo and Environs was published by Henri Abraham Chatelain in 1719, in his famous Atlas Historique.

Henri Abraham Chatelain (1684 - 1743)
was a Huguenot pastor of Parisian origins. He lived consecutively in Paris, St. Martins, London (c. 1710), the Hague (c. 1721) and Amsterdam (c. 1728). 
Chatelain was a skilled artist and knew combining a wealth of historical and geographical information with delicate engraving and an uncomplicated composition. Groundbreaking for its time, this work included studies of geography, history, ethnology, heraldry, and cosmography. His maps with his elegant engraving are a superb example from the golden age of French mapmaking.The publishing firm of Chatelain, Chatelain Frères and Chatelain & Fils is recorded in Amsterdam, from around 1700-1770, with Zacharias living "op den Dam" in 1730.
Henri Abraham Chatelain, his father Zacharie Chatelain (d.1723) and Zacharie Junior (1690-1754), worked as a partnership publishing the Atlas Historique, Ou Nouvelle Introduction à L'Histoire under several different Chatelain imprints, depending on the Chatelain family partnerships at the time of publication. The atlas was published in seven volumes between 1705 and 1720, with a second edition appearing in 1732. The volumes I-IV with a Third edition and volume I with a final edition in 1739.
Henri Abraham Chatelain, whose "Atlas Historique" was one of the most expansive Dutch encyclopedias of the age. First published in 1705, Chatelain's Atlas Historique was part of an immense seven-volume encyclopedia. Although the main focus of the text was geography, the work also included a wealth of historical, political, and genealogical information. The text was compiled by Nicholas Gueudeville and Garillon with a supplement by H.P. de Limiers and the maps were engraved by Chatelain, primarily after charts by De L'Isle. The atlas was published in Amsterdam between 1705 and 1721 and was later reissued by Zacharie Chatelain between 1732 and 1739.

Atlas Historique: First published in Amsterdam from 1705 to 1720, the various volumes were updated at various times up to 1739 when the fourth edition of vol.I appeared, stated as the "dernière edition, corrigée & augmentée." 
The first four volumes seem to have undergone four printings with the later printings being the most desirable as they contain the maximum number of corrections and additions. The remaining three final volumes were first issued between 1719-1720 and revised in 1732. 
An ambitious and beautifully-presented work, the Atlas Historique was intended for the general public, fascinated in the early eighteenth century by the recently conquered colonies and the new discoveries. Distant countries, such as the Americas, Africa, the Middle East, Mongolia, China, Japan, Indonesia, etc., take an important place in this work. 
In addition to the maps, many of which are based on Guillaume De L'Isle, the plates are after the best travel accounts of the period, such as those of Dapper, Chardin, de Bruyn, Le Hay and other.
Other sections deal with the history of the european countries, and covers a wide range of subjects including genealogy, history, cosmography, topography, heraldry and chronology, costume of the world, all illustrated with numerous engraved maps, plates of local inhabitants and heraldic charts of the lineages of the ruling families of the time. The maps, prints and tables required to make up a complete set are listed in detail in each volume. 
The accompanying text is in French and often is printed in two columns on the page with maps and other illustrations interspersed. Each map and table is numbered consecutively within its volume and all maps bear the privileges of the States of Holland and West-Friesland. 
The encyclopaedic nature of the work as a whole is reflected in this six frontispiece. The pages are the work of the celerated mr. Romeijn de Hooghe. and are engraved by J.Goeree, T.Schynyoet and P.Sluyter. 
New scholarship has suggested the compiler of the atlas, who is identified on the title as "Mr. C***" not to be Henri Abraham Châtelain, but Zacharie Châtelain. (See Van Waning's article in the Journal of the International Map Collectors' Society for persuasive evidence of the latter's authorship.) (Ref: M&B; Tooley)   

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - White
Age of map color: -  
Colors used: -  
General color appearance: -  
Paper size: - 20in x 17 1/2in (510mm x 445mm)
Plate size: - 17 1/2in x 15in (445mm x 380mm)
Margins: - min. 1in (25mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - None
Verso: - None

$275.00 USD
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1817 Thomson Large Antique Map Turkey in Asia - Black Sea Cyprus Syria Palestine

1817 Thomson Large Antique Map Turkey in Asia - Black Sea Cyprus Syria Palestine

Description: 
This large beautifully hand coloured original antique map of The Ottoman Empire in Asia was engraved by William Dassauville and published by John Thomson in his 1817 edition of A New General Atlas of the World. (Ref Tooley M&B)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - off white
Age of map color: - Original 
Colors used: - Yellow, pink, green, blue
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 27in x 20in (685mm x 510mm)
Plate size: - 21in x 16in (535mm x 405mm)
Margins: - Min 1in (25mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Light spotting in margins
Plate area: - Bottom centerfold re-joined, light uplift
Verso: - Light soiling

$275.00 USD
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1780 Rigobert Bonne Original Antique Map of Turkey in Asia - Black Sea to Persia

1780 Rigobert Bonne Original Antique Map of Turkey in Asia - Black Sea to Persia

Description:
This original copper-plate engraved map was published in 1780 edition of Atllas des toutes les parties connues du globe terrestre by Rigobert Bonne & Guillaume Raynal.

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: -
Colors used: -
General color appearance: -
Paper size: - 15in x 10in (380mm x 255mm)
Plate size: - 13in x 9in (330mm x 230mm)
Margins: - Min 1in (25mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - None
Verso: - None

$125.00 USD
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1769 J B D Anville Original Antique Map of Turkey, Cyprus, Asia Minor, Syria

1769 J B D Anville Original Antique Map of Turkey, Cyprus, Asia Minor, Syria

  • Title : Carte De L Asie Minerure Pour Servir a L Histoire De La Grece
  • Size: 16in x 11in (410mm x 260mm)
  • Ref #:  32346
  • Date : 1769
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition

Description:
This fine large, original copper-plate engraved antique map was published by Jean Baptiste Bourguignon D\'Anville in the 1769 edition of his atlas Geographie Ancienne et Abregee. or Modern and Ancient Geography (Ref: M&B; Tooley)

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: - 
Colors used: - 
General color appearance: - 
Paper size: - 16in x 11in (410mm x 260mm)
Plate size: - 13in x 9 1/2in (330mm x 245mm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (12mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - None
Verso: - None

$125.00 USD
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