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1588 Ortelius Antique Rare (State 2:3) World Map

1588 Ortelius Antique Rare (State 2:3) World Map

This is a unique opportunity to purchase the rarest of all Abraham Ortelius world map's - Typus Orbis Terrarum - Ort 2, state 3 or Ort 2:3.
To put the scarcity of this map into context please consider. Ortelius published a total of 6950 world maps over three editions of his atlases. According to the foremost authority on Ortelius works, Marcel Van Den Broecke, only 411 total world maps are known to have survived. Of these 411 only 14 are the Ort 2 edition and of these 14 only 4 are Ort 2:3 state. Making this one of the rarest maps available on the market today. Blank verso.

Description:
Ortelius published 3 World maps over the life of his atlas Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, between 1570 & 1612. These maps are referred to as Ort 1, Ort 2 & Ort 3. Within these three map editions necessary changes, repairs & updates were made to the plates, referred to as states. Ort 1 required 5 changes or states. Ort 2 required 3 changes and Ort 3 changed twice. This map published in 1588 and the last state of Ort 2 is identified by the changes to the western South American coastline, whilst still retaining the decorative cloud surround as in Ort1. Ort 3 was changed by removing the cloud surrounds replacing them with medallions and strap-work This is a beautiful map with original hand colouring, on sturdy clean paper with original margins. Prior to my acquiring the map from Marcel P R van den Broecke - author of "Ortelius Atlas Maps" - the map underwent some small professional restoration. Backed and pressed onto archival Japanese paper, these restorations, a 2cm sq one to the image and an 11cm x 1cm one to the bottom margin, have been carried out professionally and do not detract in anyway from the map. A more comprehensive description is available below as is a Certificate of Authenticity from Marcel van den Broecke, that accompanies the map.

Map history & background.
Below is a list of the different editions and states of Typus Orbis Terrarum.

- 1st edition (Ort 1) – States 1.1 through to 1.5.
A total of 3250 maps from this plate were published between 1570 & 1584. Today it is estimated that there are 236 loose copies in circulation of all 5 states.

- 2nd edition (Ort 2) - States 2.1 through to 2.3.
A total of 500 maps from this plate were published between 1586 & 1588. Today it is estimated that there are 14 loose copies in circulation of all 3 states.

- 3rd edition (Ort 3) – States 3.1 through to 3.2.
A total of 3200 maps from this plate were published between 1589 & 1612. Today it is estimated that there are 161 loose copies in circulation of both states.

Ortelius' world map is a simplified one-sheet reduction of Mercator's large world map which had appeared the year before. Nearly all the legends, textual panels and decorative features of Mercator's map have been omitted; between the oval circumference of the map and the outer frame are now clouds and below, a quotation from Cicero. From surviving correspondence, it is known that Mercator generously encouraged Ortelius to make use of his published research; he also provided him with coordinates of places in America and other newly discovered regions of the world. In the first edition South America retains the unusual bulged south-west coast as drawn by Mercator. There is also a prudent comment adjacent to New Guinea querying whether this large island is part of the southern continent or not.

The original plate, like a number of others in the Atlas, were signed by the engraver Franciscus (Frans) Hogenberg and was used for the first sixteen editions of the Theatrum.
In nearly all places there is text on the reverse of the map in the language indicated but a few copies are known which lack reverse text. Between 1575 and 1579 the plate became cracked along the lower left hand corner. The crack was roughly mended and the whole border of the clouds substantially reworked; editions from 1579 to 1584 contain this revised state 2 of plate 1. Ortelius subsequently produced two further world maps, each slightly improved geographically.
Several of these states co-existed; for instance although plate 3 carries the date 1587, it does not seem to have been issued until 1592. Only one example has been sighted of the first state plate 2 of 1586. State 3 of plate 2 is also uncommon but it re-appears in the British Library's copy of the Dutch 1598 edition of the Theatrum which, as noted by Koeman, was often made up of earlier stock sheets.
Ortelius' map was copied widely, and derivatives were later used to illustrate works by Voisin, Broughton, Maffei, Bell-Forest, Petri, Hakluyt and others.
Cartographical sources were Gerard Mercator 1569 & Gastaldi 1561 world maps and Diego Gutierrez' portolan map of the Atlantic.

Next to the list at the bottom of the text, Ortelius mentions in his Catalogues Auctorum the world maps by Peter ab Aggere from Mechelen, Sebastian Cabotus from Venice, Laurentius Fries from Antwerp, Jacobus Gastaldi, Gemma Frisius from Antwerp, Guicciardinus from Antwerp, Doco ab Hemminga Frisius, and Orontius Finæus from Paris.

Background of Theatrum Orbis Terrarum
For the first time, in 1570, all the elements of the modern Atlas were brought to publication in Abraham Ortelius' Atlas Theatrum Orbis Terrarum. This substantial undertaking assembled fifty-three of the best available maps of the world by the most renowned and up to date geographers.
Unlike earlier compositions, such as the Italian composite or "Lafreri" Atlases, each of Ortelius' maps was engraved specifically for his Atlas according to uniform format. Through its launching, pre-eminence in map publishing was transferred from Italy to the Netherlands, leading to over a hundred years of Dutch supremacy in all facts of cartographical production.
There were a total of 7300 copies of Theatrum published between 1570 - 1612 from 31 editions.

Historical sales data
A total of 114 sales of this map across all editions from 1983 to 2011.
From the 1st edition there are 40 known sales, from the 2nd edition there are 3 known sales leaving 48 sales from the third edition. The following is a further breakdown of sales data per edition.

Edition # 1 – 49 sales from 1983 to 2011 with a top price of $18,172 for an 1570 edition (Ort1:4) in 2005.
Edition # 2 - 4 sales between 1985 & 2007 with a top price of $18,000 for a 1586 Ort 2:3 in 2007
Edition # 3 - 60 sales from 1985 to 2011 with a top price of $17,759 paid for a 1606 Ort 3 in 2000.
(Please note the condition of these maps is largely unknown, condition is a major contributing factor to value). (Ref: Van Den Broecke; Tooley; Shirley; Rosenthal)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - off white
Age of map color: - Original
Colors used: - Yellow, green, blue, pink
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 20in x 14 ½in (510mm x 370mm)
Plate size: - 19 ½in x 13 1/4in (495mm x 340mm)
Margins: - Min ½in (10mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Professional 11cm restoration to bottom margin, 1cm into image. Light soiling
Plate area: - Small 2cm sq professional restoration below the ST of Australis
Verso: - Map backed on fine archival Japanese paper

$17,500.00 USD
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1770 JN Bellin Very Large Original Antique World Map on Mercators Projection

1770 JN Bellin Very Large Original Antique World Map on Mercators Projection

  • Title : Essay d' une Carte Reduite Contenant les parties connuees Du Globe Terrestre
  • Date : 1770
  • Size: 32in x 23in (815mm x 585mm)
  • Ref #:  61143
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition

Description: 
This very large beautifully hand coloured original antique World Map on Mercator's Projection was first engraved in 1748 by Jacques Nicolas Bellin, dated in the title, and was updated to 1770 showing the discoveries by Captain James Cook in Australia & New Zealand in 1769-1770.

Background: The map presents the entire world on Mercator Projection based on a Paris (L’Isle de Fer) meridian, exhibiting post-Cook geography throughout, but most specifically in the Pacific and along the northwest coast of America.
North America to the west of the Mississippi is vaguely rendered according to 16th century expeditions into the region by Coronado, La Salle, De Soto, and others.
Bellin identifies the semi-mythical civilizations of Quivira and Teguayo, both associated with legends of the Seven Cities of Gold, in what is modern day Utah, California, and Nevada. Along the western coast the strait discovered by Martin Aguilar is noted. Further north still the River of the West (Fl. de l’Ouest) extends from the west coast to the Lake of the Woods (Lac de Bois) and thence via additional waterways to the Great Lakes and the Atlantic. The River of the West appeared in many 18th century maps of the Americas and is reflective of French hopes for a water route from their colonies in Canada and Louisiana to the Pacific. Still further north the coastline becomes extremely vague, in places vanishing altogether. The Aleutians are vaguely rendered according to various sightings by Vitus Jonassen Bering and Aleksei Chirikov in the 1740s and identified as the “Archipel de Nord”.
In the Pacific, various Polynesian Island groups are noted though many are slightly or significantly misplaced. The Solomon Islands are vastly oversized referencing the early 17th claims of Quiros. The other lands discovered and erroneously mapped by Quiros in 1606 and Davis in 1686 during their search of the great southern continent are also noted. Hawaii, as yet undiscovered, is absent. New Zealand is rendered twice though is accurate in its form and position. Australia, here labeled “Nouvelle Holland”, has part of its southern coastline ghosted in and Van Diemen’s Land (Tasmania) is attached to the mainland. The southern coast of New Guinea is similarly ghosted in, suggesting its unexplored state.
It is of interest that there is a common misconception regarding this map that suggests the first edition was dated 1748. There are editions with a printed date of 1748, but these are actually later editions. The 1748 date is a printing error in which “8” and “4” are transposed, the actual date of publication being 1784. The first edition of this map is the 1778 example shown here. 
(Ref: Tooley; M&B)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - off white
Age of map color: - Original
Colors used: - Yellow, green, red, brown.
General color appearance: - Authentic and fresh
Paper size: - 32in x 23in (815mm x 585mm)
Plate size: - 28 1/2n x 20 1/2in (725mm x 520mm)
Margins: - Min 1in (25mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - Small worm hole restoration adjacent to SW Africa
Verso: - Folds as issued

$1,750.00 USD
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1776 Cook & Whitchurch Old, Antique 1st Ed. Southern Hemisphere Map - Australia, New Zealand

1776 Cook & Whitchurch Old, Antique 1st Ed. Southern Hemisphere Map - Australia, New Zealand

  • Title : A Chart of the Southern Hemisphere shewing the Tracks of some of the most distinguished Navigators by Captain James Cook of His Majesty's Navy 
  • Ref #:  61111
  • Size: 23 1/2in x 22 1/2in (605mm x 575mm)
  • Date : 1776
  • Condition: (A) Very Good Condition

Description: 
This large, scarce, original antique 1st edition map, a sea-chart of the Southern Hemisphere by Captain James Cook, was engraved by William Whitchurch in 1776 (dated at the foot of the map) and was published by William Strahan, in The Strand, London in 1777.
This 1st English edition is scarce & hard to find, as opposed to the more common French edition of this Hemisphere map by Robert Benard, published in 1784.

Background: This map by James Cook was published as the premier map of his second voyage to the Southern Hemisphere, dispelling forever the myth of the Great Southern Land, showing the true cartographic nature of the southern hemisphere dominated by Australia & New Zealand. The map on a South Polar Projection also shows South America, the South Atlantic Ocean, South Africa, Madagascar, Australia - with Tasmania still joined to the mainland - New Zealand and the southern Pacific Ocean with islands. 
Cook has also included the tracks of previous navigators & explorer's, including Mendana in 1595, Quiros in 1606, Le Maire and Schouten in 1616, Tasman in 1642 and Bougainville in 1768, Furneaux, Wallis & of course Capt James Cook himself. Engraved within the explorer's tracks are the dates of their voyages and ships tracks are particularly noted around the Antarctic Circle with notations of ice fields seen during the voyages.

Cook's First Voyage (1768-1771)
The first voyage under Captain James Cook's command was primarily of a scientific nature. The expedition on the Endeavour initially sailed to Tahiti to observe the transit of the planet Venus in order to calculate the earth's distance from the sun. Cook landed on the South Pacific island in April of 1769 and in June of that year the astronomical observations were successfully completed. In addition to these labors, very good relations with the Tahitians were maintained and the naturalists Joseph Banks and Daniel C. Solander conducted extensive ethnological and botanical research. 
Another purpose of the voyage was to explore the South Seas to determine if an inhabitable continent existed in the mid-latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere. Upon leaving Tahiti, Cook named and charted the Society Islands and then continued southwest to New Zealand. His circumnavigation and exploration of that country also resulted in a detailed survey. Cook proceeded to Australia, where he charted the eastern coast for 2,000 miles, naming the area New South Wales. As a result of these surveys, both Australia and New Zealand were annexed by Great Britain. In addition to these explorations, the Endeavour returned to England without a single death from scurvy among its men, an historic feat at the time. The combination of these accomplishments brought Cook prominence, promotion, and the opportunity to lead further expeditions.

Cook's Second Voyage (1772-1775)
Based on the success of his first voyage, Cook was appointed by the Admiralty to lead a second expedition. Two ships were employed with Cook commanding the Resolution and Captain Tobias Furneaux in charge of the Adventure. The purpose was to circumnavigate the globe as far south as possible to confirm the location of a southern continent. Cook proved that there was no "Terra Australis," which supposedly was located between New Zealand and South America. Cook was convinced, however, that there was land beyond the southern ice fields. In his pursuit of this idea, this expedition was the first European voyage to cross the Antarctic Circle. In addition, in two great sweeps through the Southern latitudes, Cook made an incredible number of landfalls including New Zealand, Easter Island, the Marquesas, Tahiti and the Society Islands, the Tonga Islands, the New Hebrides, New Caledonia, and a number of smaller islands. 
In addition to these navigational accomplishments and the accompanying expansion of geographical knowledge, the expedition also recorded a vast amount of information regarding the Pacific islands and peoples, proved the value of the chronometer as an instrument for calculating longitude, and improved techniques for preventing scurvy.

Cook's Third Voyage (1776-1779)
In the course of his first two voyages, Cook circumnavigated the globe twice, sailed extensively into the Antarctic, and charted coastlines from Newfoundland to New Zealand. Following these achievements, Cook's third voyage was organized to seek an efficient route from England to southern and eastern Asia that would not entail rounding the Cape of Good Hope. The search for such a Northwest (or Northeast) Passage had been on the agenda of northern European mariners and merchants since the beginning of European expansion in the late fifteenth century. England's growing economic and colonial interests in India in the later eighteenth century provided the stimulus for the latest exploration for this route. 
Cook, again in command of the Resolution, was to approach the Northwest Passage from the Pacific accompanied by a second ship, the Discovery, captained by Charles Clerke. The ships left England separately, regrouped at Cape Town, and continued on to Tasmania, New Zealand, and Tahiti. The expedition then sailed north and made landfall at Christmas Island and the Hawaiian Islands. Cook continued northward and charted the west coast of North America from Northern California as far as the Bering Strait. He returned to Hawaii for the winter and was killed in a skirmish with natives on February 14, 1779. Upon Cook's death, Clerke took command of the expedition but died six months later. The ships returned to England in 1780 under John Gore, who had commanded the Discovery after Cook's death. From start to finish, the voyage had lasted more than four years. (Ref Tooley; M&B; Clancy)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - off white
Age of map color: -  
Colors used: -  
General color appearance: -   
Paper size: - 23 1/2in x 22 1/2in (605mm x 575mm)
Plate size: - 23in x 21 1/2in (585mm x 545mm)
Margins: - 1/2in (12mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Repair as noted
Plate area: -  9in repair to the left of the image from NZ to margin, no loss
Verso: - Repair as noted

$1,499.00 USD
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1812 De Vaugondy Large Twin Hemisphere World Map

1812 De Vaugondy Large Twin Hemisphere World Map

  • Title : Mappe-Monde Dressee Suivant les Nouvelles Relations et Assujettie aux Observations Astronomiques…, dated 1812
  • Date : 1812
  • Ref: 50672

This relatively scarce, very large, beautifully hand coloured original antique Twin Hemisphere World Map by Robert Du Vaugondy was engraved in 1812 - dated in the title cartouche - and was re-issued and published by his successor Charle Francois Delamarche.

Background: Fifth state of this attractive double hemisphere world first issued in 1749. The map has been updated with information, particularly the additional discoveries of Cook, La Perouse, Vancouver, and Mackensie as noted in the supplementary cartouche.
With these discoveries now reflected in the map, we no longer see the notion of a Northeast Passage, Tasmania is separated from the Australian mainland. However, much of the inland Pacific Northwest is still relatively blank. The tracks of explorations and trade routes are shown in detail throughout. The large title cartouche is draped with a garland of flowers. (Ref: Tooley; M&B)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - off white
Age of map color: - Original
Colors used: - Pink, yellow, green
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 31in x 22in (790mm x 560mm)
Plate size: - 29 1/2in x 18 3/4in (750mm x 475mm)
Margins: - Min 1in (25mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - None
Verso: - None

Overall Quality (in Bold):
Perfect/Fine/Very Good/Good/Fair/Poor

$1,250.00 USD
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1780 Cook Large Antique Map of The Southern Hemisphere

1780 Cook Large Antique Map of The Southern Hemisphere

  • TitleCarte De L ' Hemisphere Austral...Par le Capitaine Jacques Cook.
  • Date : 1780
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition
  • Ref:  35505
  • Size: 22 1/2in x 22 1/2in (575mm x 575mm)

Description: 
This fine, large original antique map, a sea-chart of the Southern Hemisphere was engraved by Robert Benard and published in the 1780 French edition of L'Histoire Generale des Voyages.

Background: The map is a South Polar Projection showing South America, the South Atlantic Ocean, South Africa, Madagascar, Australia - with Tasmania still joined to the mainland - New Zealand and the southern Pacific Ocean with islands. 
Also included are the tracks of the major navigators of the era including Mendana 1595, Quiros 1606, Le Maire and Schouten 1616, Tasman 1642 and Bougainville 1768, Furneaux, Wallis & of course Capt James Cook. Included are the dates of their voyages, ships tracks are particularly noted around the Antarctic Circle with notations of ice fields seen during the voyages. Cook's tracks are shown along with those of Tasman, Byron, Mendana, Bougainville, Bouvet, Halley, Wallis, Furneaux, Carteret, Schouteen and Quiros.

Cook was recognized by his contemporaries as a highly competent navigator and scientific observer. The map clearly details his departure from the more established routes crossing the Pacific at a higher latitude, making it inevitable that he reached New Holland's east coast. Note the more northerly route taken by Cooks predecessors through calmer waters, thus missing the prize of the east coast of Australia.
Shortly after the return of the Cook expedition (3rd) to England, copies of the engravings were smuggled out to Paris and a French issue of the third voyage was published in Paris, 1785. The engravings by Webber (Official artist of the voyage) were used by the French engraver Benard, with French titles substituted. These were of equal quality to the English edition, on good strong hand-made paper. Many of the views are the first ever seen in Europe of the Pacific Islands.
The first printed account of the first voyage under Cook's command was this anonymously published work. Surreptitiously edited and printed by Thomas Becket only two months after the expedition returned to England, it was published almost two years before the official account by John Hawkesworth appeared. As described on the title page, the book related "various occurrences of the voyage, with descriptions of several new discovered countries in the southern hemisphere." The work also provided much information about the native inhabitants encountered on the voyage, including "a concise vocabulary of the language of Otahitee" [Tahiti]. The text was quickly disseminated with a second English edition published in Dublin as well as translations into German and French the following year. French editions were also printed in 1773, 1777, 1782, and 1793. (Ref Tooley M&B)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - off white
Age of map color: -  
Colors used: -  
General color appearance: -   
Paper size: - 22 1/2in x 22 1/2in (575mm x 575mm)
Plate size: - 21 1/2in x 21 1/2in (545mm x 545mm)
Margins: - 1/2in (12mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: -  Folds as issued
Verso: - None

$1,250.00 USD
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1812 Pinkerton Large Antique Azimuthal Projection Map of the Southern Hemisphere

1812 Pinkerton Large Antique Azimuthal Projection Map of the Southern Hemisphere

Description: 
This very large and beautifully hand coloured original antique Stereographic Southern Hemisphere map was engraved by John Neele in 1812 - the date is engraved at the foot of the maps - and was published by the famous Scottish publisher John Pinkerton in his large folio Modern Atlas, which was published between 1809-14. 

Background: The azimuthal equidistant projection is an azimuthal map projection. It has the useful properties that all points on the map are at proportionately correct distances from the center point, and that all points on the map are at the correct azimuth (direction) from the center point. A useful application for this type of projection is a polar projection which shows all meridians (lines of longitude) as straight, with distances from the pole represented correctly.
While it may have been used by ancient Egyptians for star maps in some holy books, the earliest text describing the azimuthal equidistant projection is an 11th-century work by al-Biruni.
The projection appears in many Renaissance maps, and Gerardus Mercator used it for an inset of the north polar regions in sheet 13 and legend 6 of his well-known 1569 map. In France and Russia this projection is named "Postel projection" after Guillaume Postel, who used it for a map in 1581. Many modern star chart planispheres use the polar azimuthal equidistant projection. (Ref: Tooley; M&B)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper colour: - off white
Age of map colour: - Original & later
Colours used: - Green, pink, yellow
General colour appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 31in x 22in (790mm x 560mm)  
Plate size: - 31in x 22in (790mm x 560mm)  
Margins: - min 1in (25mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - None
Verso: - None

$850.00 USD
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1715 William Dampier Antique Twin Hemisphere World Map, California Is. Australia

1715 William Dampier Antique Twin Hemisphere World Map, California Is. Australia

Description: 
This beautiful copper-plate engraved scarce, original antique Twin Hemisphere World Map by William Dampier was published in the 1715 French edition of A New Voyage Around the World (Nouveau Voyage autour du Monde)
Fantastic map showing the route taken by Dampier on his first voyage in his ship Roebuck, visiting NW Australia, GOM and Southern Africa whilst circumnavigating the world. California is shown as an island as was the popular belief at the time.

Background: William Dampier (1651 - 1715) was an English explorer and navigator who became the first Englishman to explore parts of what is today Australia, and the first person to circumnavigate the world three times. He has also been described as Australia's first natural historian, as well as one of the most important British explorers of the period between Sir Walter Raleigh and James Cook.
After impressing the Admiralty with his book A New Voyage Round the World, Dampier was given command of a Royal Navy ship and made important discoveries in western Australia, before being court-martialled for cruelty. On a later voyage he rescued Alexander Selkirk, a former crewmate who may have inspired Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe. Others influenced by Dampier include James Cook, Horatio Nelson, Charles Darwin.
In 1679, Dampier joined the crew of the buccaneer Captain Bartholomew Sharp on the Spanish Main of Central America, twice visiting the Bay of Campeche, or "Campeachy" as it was then known, on the north coast of Mexico. This led to his first circumnavigation, during which he accompanied a raid across the Isthmus of Darién in Panama and took part in the capture of Spanish ships on the Pacific coast of that isthmus. The pirates then raided Spanish settlements in Peru before returning to the Caribbean.
Dampier made his way to Virginia, where in 1683 he was engaged by the privateer John Cooke. Cooke entered the Pacific via Cape Horn and spent a year raiding Spanish possessions in Peru, the Galápagos Islands, and Mexico. This expedition collected buccaneers and ships as it went along, at one time having a fleet of ten vessels. Cooke died in Mexico, and a new leader, Edward Davis, was elected captain by the crew.
Dampier transferred to the privateer Charles Swan's ship, Cygnet, and on 31 March 1686 they set out across the Pacific to raid the East Indies, calling at Guam and Mindanao. Spanish witnesses saw the predominantly English crew as not only pirates and heretics but also cannibals. Leaving Swan and 36 others behind on Mindanao, the rest of the privateers sailed on to Manila, Poulo Condor, China, the Spice Islands, and New Holland. Contrary to Dampier's later claim that he had not actively participated in actual piratical attacks during this voyage, he was in fact selected in 1687 to command one of the Spanish ships captured by Cygnet's crew off Manila.
On 5 January 1688, Cygnet "anchored two miles from shore in 29 fathoms" on the northwest coast of Australia, near King Sound. Dampier and his ship remained there until March 12, and while the ship was being careened Dampier made notes on the fauna and flora and the indigenous peoples he found there. Among his fellows were a significant number of Spanish sailors, most notably Alonso Ramírez, a native of San Juan, Puerto Rico  Later that year, by agreement, Dampier and two shipmates were marooned on one of the Nicobar Islands. They obtained a small canoe which they modified after first capsizing and then, after surviving a great storm at sea, called at "Acheen" (Aceh) in Sumatra.
Dampier returned to England in 1691 via the Cape of Good Hope, penniless but in possession of his journals. He also had as a source of income a slave known as Prince Jeoly (or Giolo), from Miangas (now Indonesia), who became famous for his tattoos (or "paintings" as they were known at the time). Dampier exhibited Jeoly in London, thereby also generating publicity for a book based on his diaries.
The publication of the book, A New Voyage Round the World, in 1697 was a popular sensation, creating interest at the Admiralty. In 1699, Dampier was given command of the 26-gun warship HMS Roebuck, with a commission from King William III (who had ruled jointly with Queen Mary II until her death in 1694). His mission was to explore the east coast of New Holland, the name given by the Dutch to what is now Australia, and Dampier's intention was to travel there via Cape Horn.
The expedition set out on 14 January 1699, too late in the season to attempt the Horn, so it headed to New Holland via the Cape of Good Hope instead. Following the Dutch route to the Indies, Dampier passed between Dirk Hartog Island and the Western Australian mainland into what he called Shark Bay on 6 August 1699. He landed and began producing the first known detailed record of Australian flora and fauna. The botanical drawings that were made are believed to be by his clerk, James Brand. Dampier then followed the coast north-east, reaching the Dampier Archipelago and Lagrange Bay, just south of what is now called Roebuck Bay, all the while recording and collecting specimens, including many shells. From there he bore northward for Timor. Then he sailed east and on 3 December 1699 rounded New Guinea, which he passed to the north. He traced the south-eastern coasts of New Hanover, New Ireland and New Britain, charting the Dampier Strait between these islands (now the Bismarck Archipelago) and New Guinea. En route, he paused to collect specimens such as giant clams.
By this time, Roebuck was in such bad condition that Dampier was forced to abandon his plan to examine the east coast of New Holland while less than a hundred miles from it. In danger of sinking, he attempted to make the return voyage to England, but the ship foundered at Ascension Island on 21 February 1701. While anchored offshore the ship began to take on more water and the carpenter could do nothing with the worm-eaten planking. As a result, the vessel had to be run aground. Dampier's crew was marooned there for five weeks before being picked up on 3 April by an East Indiaman and returned home in August 1701.
Although many papers were lost with Roebuck, Dampier was able to save some new charts of coastlines, and his record of trade winds and currents in the seas around Australia and New Guinea. He also preserved a few of his specimens. In 2001, the Roebuck wreck was located in Clarence Bay, Ascension Island, by a team from the Western Australian Maritime Museum. Because of his widespread influence, and also because so little exists that can now be linked to him, it has been argued that the remains of his ship and the objects still at the site on Ascension Island – while the property of Britain and subject to the island government's management – are actually the shared maritime heritage of those parts of the world first visited or described by him. His account of the expedition was published as A Voyage to New Holland in 1703.
The War of the Spanish Succession had broken out in 1701, and English privateers were being readied to act against French and Spanish interests. Dampier was appointed commander of the 26-gun ship St George, with a crew of 120 men. They were joined by the 16-gun Cinque Ports with 63 men, and sailed on 11 September 1703 from Kinsale, Ireland. The two ships made a storm-tossed passage round Cape Horn, arriving at the Juan Fernández Islands off the coast of Chile in February 1704.  While watering and provisioning there, they sighted a heavily armed French merchantman, which they engaged in a seven-hour battle but were driven off.
Dampier succeeded in capturing a number of small Spanish ships along the coast of Peru, but released them after removing only a fraction of their cargoes because he believed they "would be a hindrance to his greater designs. The greater design he had in mind was a raid on Santa María, a town on the Gulf of Panama rumoured to hold stockpiles of gold from nearby mines. When the force of seamen he led against the town met with unexpectedly strong resistance, however, he withdrew. In May 1704, Cinque Ports separated from St George and, after putting Alexander Selkirk ashore alone on an island for complaining about the vessel's seaworthiness, sank off the coast of what is today Colombia. Some of its crew survived being shipwrecked but were made prisoners of the Spanish.
It was now left to St George to make an attempt on the Manila galleon, the main object of the expedition. The ship was sighted on 6 December 1704, probably Nuestra Señora del Rosario. It was caught unprepared and had not run out its guns. But while Dampier and his officers argued over the best way to mount an attack, the galleon got its guns loaded and the battle was joined. St George soon found itself out-sized by the galleon's 18- and 24-pounders, and, suffering serious damage, they were forced to break off the attack.
The failure to capture the Spanish galleon completed the break-up of the expedition. Dampier, with about thirty men, stayed in St George, while the rest of the crew took a captured barque across the Pacific to Amboyna in the Dutch settlements. The undermanned and worm-damaged St George had to be abandoned on the coast of Peru. He and his remaining men embarked in a Spanish prize for the East Indies, where they were thrown into prison as pirates by their supposed allies the Dutch but later released. Now without a ship, Dampier made his way back to England at the end of 1707.
In 1708, Dampier was engaged to serve on the privateer Duke, not as captain but as sailing master. Duke beat its way into the South Pacific Ocean round Cape Horn in consort with a second ship, Duchess. Commanded by Woodes Rogers, this voyage was more successful: Selkirk was rescued on 2 February 1709, and the expedition amassed £147,975  (equivalent to £19.9 million today) worth of plundered goods. Most of that came from the capture of a Spanish galleon, Nuestra Señora de la Encarnación y Desengaño, along the coast of Mexico in December 1709.
In January 1710, Dampier crossed the Pacific in Duke, accompanied by Duchess and two prizes. They stopped at Guam before arriving in Batavia. Following a refit at Horn Island (near Batavia) and the sale of one of their prize ships, they sailed for the Cape of Good Hope where they remained for more than three months awaiting a convoy. They left the Cape in company with 25 Dutch and English ships, with Dampier now serving as sailing master of Encarnación. After a further delay at the Texel, they dropped anchor at the Thames in London on 14 October 1711.
Dampier may not have lived to receive all of his share of the expedition's gains. He died in the Parish of St Stephen Coleman Street, London. The exact date and circumstances of his death, and his final resting place, are all unknown. His will was proven on 23 March 1715, and it is generally assumed he died earlier that month, but this is not known with any certainty. (Ref Tooley M&B)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - off white
Age of map color: - 
Colors used: - 
General color appearance: - 
Paper size: - 12in x 7 1/2in (305mm x 190mm)
Plate size: - 12in x 7 1/2in (305mm x 190mm)
Margins: - Min 1/4in (5mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Folds as issued
Plate area: - Folds as issued, light age toning along folds
Verso: - Folds as issued, light age toning along folds

$850.00 USD
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1812 Pinkerton Large Antique Azimuthal Projection Map of the Northern Hemisphere

1812 Pinkerton Large Antique Azimuthal Projection Map of the Northern Hemisphere

Description: 
This very large and beautifully hand coloured original antique Stereographic Northern Hemisphere map was engraved by John Neele in 1812 - the date is engraved at the foot of the maps - and was published by the famous Scottish publisher John Pinkerton in his large folio Modern Atlas, which was published between 1809-14. 

Background: The azimuthal equidistant projection is an azimuthal map projection. It has the useful properties that all points on the map are at proportionately correct distances from the center point, and that all points on the map are at the correct azimuth (direction) from the center point. A useful application for this type of projection is a polar projection which shows all meridians (lines of longitude) as straight, with distances from the pole represented correctly.
While it may have been used by ancient Egyptians for star maps in some holy books, the earliest text describing the azimuthal equidistant projection is an 11th-century work by al-Biruni.
The projection appears in many Renaissance maps, and Gerardus Mercator used it for an inset of the north polar regions in sheet 13 and legend 6 of his well-known 1569 map. In France and Russia this projection is named "Postel projection" after Guillaume Postel, who used it for a map in 1581. Many modern star chart planispheres use the polar azimuthal equidistant projection. (Ref: Tooley; M&B)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper colour: - off white
Age of map colour: - Original & later
Colours used: - Green, pink, yellow
General colour appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 31in x 22in (790mm x 560mm)  
Plate size: - 31in x 22in (790mm x 560mm)  
Margins: - min 1in (25mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - None
Verso: - None

$750.00 USD
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1760 Gebauers Antique Map of Australia, Pacific, East Indies, China, Middle East

1760 Gebauers Antique Map of Australia, Pacific, East Indies, China, Middle East

  • TitleKarte von Ostindien, nach den neuesten Entdeckungen zur Erleuterung der geschichteder ostindischen Handlungs Geselschaften
  • Date : 1760
  • Condition: (A) Very Good Condition
  • Ref:  16283
  • Size: 15in x 9in (380mm x 230mm)

Description:
This fine beautifully hand colured original antique German map of Australia and the East Indies & Africa was published Johann Justine Gebauers in 1760 prior to the discoveries of Captain Cook some 20 odd years later. Unusual and scarce map of the region.

This is a beautiful map, quite highly detailed and wonderfully hand coloured. Australia shown joined to PNG with notes on the explorers Dampier, de Wit and Van Nuits all reaching Australia in the previous 17th century. The West coast of New Zealand is shown with the earlier discoveries. (Ref: M&B; Tooley)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy & stable
Paper color: - White
Age of map color: - Early  
Colors used: - Blue, yellow, pink  
General color appearance: - Authentic  
Paper size: - 15in x 9in (380mm x 230mm)
Paper size: - 14in x 8 1/2in (355mm x 215mm)
Margins: - Min 1/4in (10mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - Folds as issued
Verso: - None

$650.00 USD
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1799 De Vaugondy Delamarche Twin Hemisphere World Map

1799 De Vaugondy Delamarche Twin Hemisphere World Map

  • Title : Mappe-Monde par Robert de Vaugondy Geographe Corrigee par Delamarche son Successeur
  • Ref #:  50687
  • Size: 18in x 12 1/2in (460mm x 310mm)
  • Date : 1799
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition

Description:
This beautifully hand coloured original antique Twin Hemisphere World Map by Robert De Vaugondy was published by Charles Francois Delamarche, De Vaugondy's successor, in 1799. 

Fine twin hemisphere world map illustrating the known world at the end of the 18th century. Although almost complete there are a few regions of uncertainty. The route taken by Cook on his final voyage is included which reaches from Australia, New Zealand to Hawaii and the very northern reaches of western North America which were surveyed and mapped by Cook extensively. The recent discovery of Bass Strait separating Tasmania from the mainland of Australia is named  and although there is some indication of a northern Arctic region there is no mention of the great southern Antarctica regions. A great map showing the world at the beginning of modern transformation. (Ref: Tooley; M&B)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - White
Age of map color: - Early
Colors used: - Pink, green, blue, yellow
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper Size: - 18in x 12 1/2in (460mm x 310mm)
Plate size: - 17 1/2in x 10 3/4in (445mm x 275mm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (10mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Very light soiling
Plate area: - 2 light spots in Pacific & SE Asia
Verso: - Light soiling

$650.00 USD
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1815 Thomson Large Antique Map of The Eastern Hemisphere, Australia

1815 Thomson Large Antique Map of The Eastern Hemisphere, Australia

  • Title: Eastern Hemisphere
  • Date: 1815
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition
  • Ref: 30863
  • Size: 29in x 21in (740mm x 535mm)

Description:
This large map of the Eastern Hemisphere was engraved in 1815 - the date is engraved at the foot of the map - and published by John Thomson in his 1817 edition of A New General Atlas of the World. As with all Thomson's maps this is beautifully engraved with superb detail and original hand color, a fine map. (Tooley: Moreland & Bannister)

Condition Report:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - off white
Age of map color: - Original
Colors used: - Green, pink, yellow, blue
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 29in x 21in (740mm x 535mm)
Plate size: - 23in x 20in (380mm x 505mm)
Margins: - Min 1in (25mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Light offsetting
Plate area: - None
Verso: - None

$425.00 USD
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1750 Admiral George Anson & Lattre Large Antique World Map, California Island

1750 Admiral George Anson & Lattre Large Antique World Map, California Island

  • TitleCarte dans laquelle on Voit la Route que le Centurion a Tenu dans la Voiage au tour du Monde
  • Date : 1750
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition
  • Ref:  92607
  • Size: 16 1/2in x 11in (420mm x 280mm)

Description: 
This finely engraved beautifully hand coloured original antique World Map - showing California as an Island - illustrates the route taken by Admiral George Anson in his ship the Centurion in his global voyage of discovery between 1740 & 1744. 

The map was engraved by Frenchman Jean Lattre in 1750 and was published in the French edition of Ansons book A Voyage round the World, in the Years MDCCXL, I, II, III,IV. The book was written by Richard Walter, Chaplin aboard Ansons flagship,  Centurion.

In his famous voyage (1740–44) around the world, Anson, in spite of shipwrecks and scurvy, inflicted great damage on Spanish shipping and returned to England with a rich prize. He was raised to the peerage after his popular naval victory (1747) off Cape Finisterre. Appointed then as first lord of the admiralty, he assisted William Pitt, Lord Chatham, in reorganizing naval administration.
British navigators in the 1700`s were often interested in more than increasing the glory of God & Country. In September 1740 Commodore Anson set off across the Atlantic with six poorly manned, ill-equipped vessels to capture Spanish treasure ships in the Pacific. He lost three ships rounding Cape Horn but went on to raid Spanish mining settlements on the coast of Chili. Although he and his crew suffered incredible hardships while crossing the Pacific in their one remaining ship, the Centurion, Anson managed to capture a Spanish treasure galleon near the Philippines. He sold this prize for £400,000 in Canton, China, the Centurion being the first British warship to enter Chinese waters. By the time he reached England in June 1744, more than half the original crew of nearly 2,000 men had died, chiefly of scurvy. (Ref: Tooley)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy & stable
Paper color: - White
Age of map color: - Early
Colors used: -  Yellow, green, pink
General color appearance: -  Authentic
Paper size: - 16 1/2in x 11in (420mm x 280mm)
Plate size: - 16 1/2in x 11in (420mm x 280mm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (12mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - Folds as issued, very light offsetting
Verso: - None

$475.00 USD
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1745 George Anson Antique Mercators World Map, Island of California, New Holland

1745 George Anson Antique Mercators World Map, Island of California, New Holland

  • TitleA Chart shewing The Track of the Centurion round the World
  • Ref #:  16292
  • Size: 19in x 10 1/2in (485mm x 265mm)
  • Date : 1745
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition

Description: 
This fine original antique World Map centering on Australia and the Pacific - with North America & the Island of California - covering  the route taken by Admiral George Anson & the ship the Centurion in his global voyage between 1740 & 1744. 
The map was engraved by Richard Seale and was published in the English edition of Ansons book A Voyage round the World, in the Years MDCCXL, I, II, III,IV. The book was written by Richard Walter, Chaplin aboard Ansons flagship,  Centurion.

In his famous voyage (1740–44) around the world, Anson, in spite of shipwrecks and scurvy, inflicted great damage on Spanish shipping and returned to England with a rich prize. He was raised to the peerage after his popular naval victory (1747) off Cape Finisterre. Appointed then as first lord of the admiralty, he assisted William Pitt, Lord Chatham, in reorganizing naval administration.
British navigators in the 1700`s were often interested in more than increasing the glory of God & Country. In September 1740 Commodore Anson set off across the Atlantic with six poorly manned, ill-equipped vessels to capture Spanish treasure ships in the Pacific. He lost three ships rounding Cape Horn but went on to raid Spanish mining settlements on the coast of Chili. Although he and his crew suffered incredible hardships while crossing the Pacific in their one remaining ship, the Centurion, Anson managed to capture a Spanish treasure galleon near the Philippines. He sold this prize for £400,000 in Canton, China, the Centurion being the first British warship to enter Chinese waters. By the time he reached England in June 1744, more than half the original crew of nearly 2,000 men had died, chiefly of scurvy. (Ref: Tooley)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy & stable
Paper color: - White
Age of map color: -  
Colors used: -   
General color appearance: -   
Paper size: - 19in x 10 1/2in (485mm x 265mm)
Plate size: - 16 1/2in x 9 1/2in (420mm x 245mm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (12mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - Light horizontal crease
Verso: - None

$325.00 USD
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1821 Brue Large Antique World Map of Mercators Projection - New Holland, Texas

1821 Brue Large Antique World Map of Mercators Projection - New Holland, Texas

Description: 
This large original antique World map on Mercator's projection was engraved in 1821 - the date is engraved in the title - and was published in Adrien Brue's (1786 - 1832) large Atlas Universel de Geographie.

A fantastic World map in a time of great change. The map centres on New Holland or Australia (officially named Australia in 1824 by the British) Mexico still holds sway on the western portion of North America. Much of Capt. Cooks discoveries are recognised on this map in NW America and the south Pacific but not his explorations in Antarctica and beyond. Central Africa still remains relatively unexplored by the Europeans as does the Artic north of Canada. A fantastic map. (Ref: M&B; Tooley)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - Off white
Age of map color: - 
Colors used: - 
General color appearance: - 
Paper size: - 24in x 18in (610mm x 460mm)
Plate size: - 21 1/2in x 15 1/2in (545mm x 395mm)
Margins: - Min 1in (25mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Soiling in margins, repair to top margin, no loss
Plate area: - Soiling and spotting to top of map
Verso: - Soiling

$299.00 USD
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1762 Lotter Twin Hemisphere Antique World Map

1762 Lotter Twin Hemisphere Antique World Map

Description: 
This beautifully hand coloured original antique Twin Hemisphere World Map by Tobias Conrad Lotter was engraved by Tobias Lobeck and  published in the 1762 edition of Atlas Geographicus Portatilis, Augsburg.

The 18th century saw a cartographical revival in Germany and the increased output included some miniature atlases. This atlas is one such example with each map although small engraved with accurate and varied detail. (Ref: Tooley, M&B)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - off white
Age of map color: - Original
Colors used: - Pink, green, yellow
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 5 1/2in x 4 1/2in (140mm x 115mm)
Plate size: - 5 1/2in x 4 1/2in (140mm x 115mm)
Margins: - Min 1/4in (5mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - None
Verso: - None

$275.00 USD
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1856 Dufour Very Large Antique Hydrographic World Map on Mercators Projection

1856 Dufour Very Large Antique Hydrographic World Map on Mercators Projection

  • Title : Mappe-Monde Planispherique Physique et Hydrographique. CH Dyonnet..1856.
  • Ref #:  61019
  • Size: 33in x 24in (840mm x 610mm)
  • Date : 1856
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition

Description: 
This scarce very large elephant folio, finely executed hand coloured map of The World on Mercator's projection illustrating the worlds ocean  currents was engraved by Charles Dyonnet in 1856 - dated in the title - for Adolphe Hippolyte Dufour's monumental elephant folioAtlas Physique, Historique et Politique Geographie Moderne published by Pauline Et La Chevalier, Paris.  

Adolphe Hippolyte Dufour (1795 - 1865) also known as Auguste-Henri Dufour, was a Paris based map and atlas publisher active in the middle to late 19th century. Dufour claimed to be a student of another French cartographer, Emile Lapie. He is known to have worked with numerous other cartographers, publishers and engravers of the period including Charles Dyonnet and Duvotenay. His corpus includes numerous maps and atlases, the most striking of which is probably his monumental elephant folioAtlas Universel physique, historique et politique geographie ancienne et moderne. Dufour's student and successor was Alexandre Vuillemin. 

Charles Dyonnet (fl. c. 1822 - c. 1880) was an extremely active Paris based engraver working in the mid to late 19th century. From his offices at 220 Rue St. Jacques, Paris, Dyonnet engraved numerous maps for many of the most prominent 19th French cartographic publishers including Vuillemin, Dufour, Fremin and Duvotenay. From 1850-1861, he held the coveted position of "Graveur du Dépot de la Marine," and in this position engraved numerous French naval and military maps. Dyonnet had a detail oriented and aesthetically minded hand and is responsible from some of the most beautiful French maps to emerge during the 19th century. (Ref: M&B; Tooley)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy & stable
Paper color: - White
Age of map color: - Original 
Colors used: - Yellow, red, green, blue
General color appearance: - Authentic 
Paper size: - 33in x 24in (840mm x 610mm)
Paper size: - 33in x 24in (840mm x 610mm)
Margins: - Min 1in (24mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Light soiling in margins
Plate area: - None
Verso: - Light soiling

$275.00 USD
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1704 Bodenehr Antique Twin Hemisphere World Map, California as an Island

1704 Bodenehr Antique Twin Hemisphere World Map, California as an Island

  • Title : Der Gantze Welt Kreis in seinen Zwey Grossen Begriffen
  • Ref #:  92831
  • Size: 7in x 6in (180mm x 150mm)
  • Date : 1704
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition

Description: 
This fine hand coloured original antique twin Hemisphere World map was published by Gabriel Bodenehr in the 1704 edition of Atlas Curieux  

A bold border and decorative title cartouche enclose this miniature map of the world. The double hemisphere includes the Island of California, a blank Northwest coast of North America, and partial coastlines for Australia and New Zealand. Tucked between the spheres are two polar projections. (Ref: M&B; Tooley)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy & stable
Paper color: - White
Age of map color: - Early
Colors used: - Blue, yellow, green, pink
General color appearance: - Authentic  
Paper size: - 7in x 6in (180mm x 150mm)
Paper size: - 6in x 5 1/4in (150mm x 135mm)
Margins: - Min 1/4in (6mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - None
Verso: - None

$275.00 USD
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1767 Clouet Antique Twin Hemisphere World Map - Misshapen Australia

1767 Clouet Antique Twin Hemisphere World Map - Misshapen Australia

Description:
This fine, large beautifully hand coloured original antique Twin Hemisphere World Map - with an unusually depicted southern coast of Australia and French text on the General views of the World at the time - by Jean Baptiste Louis Clouet (1730-87) was published byMondhare et Jean, Paris in the 1767 edition of Clouets Atlas Geographie moderne avec une introduction.  (Ref: M&B; Tooley)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy & stable
Paper color: - White
Age of map color: - Original
Colors used: - Yellow, blue, pink
General color appearance: - Authentic  
Paper size: - 23in x 16in (585mm x 410mm)
Plate size: - 22 1/2in x 13in (575mm x 330mm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (12mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - None
Verso: - None

$275.00 USD
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Du Val Original 1682 Antique Map of North Pole, North America, Europe, Russia

Du Val Original 1682 Antique Map of North Pole, North America, Europe, Russia

Description:
This beautifully hand coloured original 1682 antique map of the North Pole by Pierre Du Val was published in his 1682 miniature atlas, 'Géographie Universelle'.Jacques Nicholas Bellindu

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: - Original
Colors used: - Yellow, green, blue, pink
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 6 1/2in x 6in (160mm x 155mm)
Plate size: - 5in x 4in (125mm x 100mm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (12mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - None
Verso: - None

Background: 
A driving force for the exploration of the Arctic was the desire of European monarchs to find an alternate trading route to China, via either a Northwest Passage along the coast of North America, or a Northeast Passage along the coast of Siberia. A number of expeditions sought such routes in the 1500-1700s, which resulted in the discovery of much of northern North America, but no viable passage. 
In 1524, under the direction of the king of France, Giovanni da Verrazano took the entrance to Hudson River (now New York City) to be the entrance for the passage, and ten years later Jacques Cartier likewise discovered the St. Lawrence estuary. The first Englishman to seek the passage was Martin Frobisher in three voyages up to 60°N between 1576 and 1578. On his first voyage, relations with the natives quickly became hostile, and a prisoner was brought back to England. John Davis followed in 1585, 1586, and 1587 charting the strait west of Greenland that now bears his name. 
Financed by the Dutch, in 1609 the Englishman Henry Hudson followed Verrazano's course, and explored the river that now bears his name. The following year he discovered the vast inlet (now called Hudson Bay) beyond Davis Strait. Robert Bylot and navigator William Baffin undertook two expeditions in 1615 and 1616, exploring the north coast of Greenland up to 78°N and then along the Canadian archipelago to Lancaster Sound. Convinced it was only a bay, Baffin concluded that no Northwest Passage existed, and interest in searching for one waned for the next 200 years. 
Other explorers were drawn to search for a Northeast Passage connecting the White Sea and Bering Sea. The Dutch navigator William Barents led three expeditions east of Novaya Zemlya, and on the third expedition in 1596 claimed Spitsbergen. From the early 16th century, Russian navigators used shallow draft vessels with reinforced bottoms (kochi) to cross the Kara Sea and explore the Ob and Yenisey rivers. Yermak's Cossacks expanded the Russian presence eastward, crossing the Ural Mountains in 1581. In 1601, Mangazeya town was founded at Taz River between the Ob and Yenisey rivers, and dozens of boats from Pomor lands began annual navigations. 
Throughout the first quarter of the 17th century, a great number of merchants, trappers and Cossacks moved east and north, settled East Siberia and explored the northern Siberian coast. In 1610, the Yenisey River was navigated to its northern estuary and the coast to the estuary of the Pyasina was explored. Cape Chelyuskin was overtaken from the west in 1617, Yakutian Cossacks Ivan Rebrov and Ilya Perfilyev headed down to the Lena River estuary and made the first sea voyage to the Yana River in 1633, and in 1639, the Pacific shore was reached by Ivan Moskvitin and his detachment of Cossacks. In a 15-year timespan, all Siberian river estuaries from Khatanga to Kolyma had been discovered and a large part of the Northeast Passage from the White Sea to Kolyma estuary had been covered. Semen Dezhnev traversed the final segment in 1648, leading 90 Cossacks on a journey from the Kolyma to Anadyr Rivers, discovering the strait between Asia and America (proving that they were different continents) and passing the cape which now bears his name.

$225.00 USD
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