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1588 Ortelius Antique Rare (State 2:3) World Map

1588 Ortelius Antique Rare (State 2:3) World Map

This is a unique opportunity to purchase the rarest of all Abraham Ortelius world map's - Typus Orbis Terrarum - Ort 2, state 3 or Ort 2:3.
To put the scarcity of this map into context please consider. Ortelius published a total of 6950 world maps over three editions of his atlases. According to the foremost authority on Ortelius works, Marcel Van Den Broecke, only 411 total world maps are known to have survived. Of these 411 only 14 are the Ort 2 edition and of these 14 only 4 are Ort 2:3 state. Making this one of the rarest maps available on the market today. Blank verso.

Description:
Ortelius published 3 World maps over the life of his atlas Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, between 1570 & 1612. These maps are referred to as Ort 1, Ort 2 & Ort 3. Within these three map editions necessary changes, repairs & updates were made to the plates, referred to as states. Ort 1 required 5 changes or states. Ort 2 required 3 changes and Ort 3 changed twice. This map published in 1588 and the last state of Ort 2 is identified by the changes to the western South American coastline, whilst still retaining the decorative cloud surround as in Ort1. Ort 3 was changed by removing the cloud surrounds replacing them with medallions and strap-work This is a beautiful map with original hand colouring, on sturdy clean paper with original margins. Prior to my acquiring the map from Marcel P R van den Broecke - author of "Ortelius Atlas Maps" - the map underwent some small professional restoration. Backed and pressed onto archival Japanese paper, these restorations, a 2cm sq one to the image and an 11cm x 1cm one to the bottom margin, have been carried out professionally and do not detract in anyway from the map. A more comprehensive description is available below as is a Certificate of Authenticity from Marcel van den Broecke, that accompanies the map.

Map history & background.
Below is a list of the different editions and states of Typus Orbis Terrarum.

- 1st edition (Ort 1) – States 1.1 through to 1.5.
A total of 3250 maps from this plate were published between 1570 & 1584. Today it is estimated that there are 236 loose copies in circulation of all 5 states.

- 2nd edition (Ort 2) - States 2.1 through to 2.3.
A total of 500 maps from this plate were published between 1586 & 1588. Today it is estimated that there are 14 loose copies in circulation of all 3 states.

- 3rd edition (Ort 3) – States 3.1 through to 3.2.
A total of 3200 maps from this plate were published between 1589 & 1612. Today it is estimated that there are 161 loose copies in circulation of both states.

Ortelius' world map is a simplified one-sheet reduction of Mercator's large world map which had appeared the year before. Nearly all the legends, textual panels and decorative features of Mercator's map have been omitted; between the oval circumference of the map and the outer frame are now clouds and below, a quotation from Cicero. From surviving correspondence, it is known that Mercator generously encouraged Ortelius to make use of his published research; he also provided him with coordinates of places in America and other newly discovered regions of the world. In the first edition South America retains the unusual bulged south-west coast as drawn by Mercator. There is also a prudent comment adjacent to New Guinea querying whether this large island is part of the southern continent or not.

The original plate, like a number of others in the Atlas, were signed by the engraver Franciscus (Frans) Hogenberg and was used for the first sixteen editions of the Theatrum.
In nearly all places there is text on the reverse of the map in the language indicated but a few copies are known which lack reverse text. Between 1575 and 1579 the plate became cracked along the lower left hand corner. The crack was roughly mended and the whole border of the clouds substantially reworked; editions from 1579 to 1584 contain this revised state 2 of plate 1. Ortelius subsequently produced two further world maps, each slightly improved geographically.
Several of these states co-existed; for instance although plate 3 carries the date 1587, it does not seem to have been issued until 1592. Only one example has been sighted of the first state plate 2 of 1586. State 3 of plate 2 is also uncommon but it re-appears in the British Library's copy of the Dutch 1598 edition of the Theatrum which, as noted by Koeman, was often made up of earlier stock sheets.
Ortelius' map was copied widely, and derivatives were later used to illustrate works by Voisin, Broughton, Maffei, Bell-Forest, Petri, Hakluyt and others.
Cartographical sources were Gerard Mercator 1569 & Gastaldi 1561 world maps and Diego Gutierrez' portolan map of the Atlantic.

Next to the list at the bottom of the text, Ortelius mentions in his Catalogues Auctorum the world maps by Peter ab Aggere from Mechelen, Sebastian Cabotus from Venice, Laurentius Fries from Antwerp, Jacobus Gastaldi, Gemma Frisius from Antwerp, Guicciardinus from Antwerp, Doco ab Hemminga Frisius, and Orontius Finæus from Paris.

Background of Theatrum Orbis Terrarum
For the first time, in 1570, all the elements of the modern Atlas were brought to publication in Abraham Ortelius' Atlas Theatrum Orbis Terrarum. This substantial undertaking assembled fifty-three of the best available maps of the world by the most renowned and up to date geographers.
Unlike earlier compositions, such as the Italian composite or "Lafreri" Atlases, each of Ortelius' maps was engraved specifically for his Atlas according to uniform format. Through its launching, pre-eminence in map publishing was transferred from Italy to the Netherlands, leading to over a hundred years of Dutch supremacy in all facts of cartographical production.
There were a total of 7300 copies of Theatrum published between 1570 - 1612 from 31 editions.

Historical sales data
A total of 114 sales of this map across all editions from 1983 to 2011.
From the 1st edition there are 40 known sales, from the 2nd edition there are 3 known sales leaving 48 sales from the third edition. The following is a further breakdown of sales data per edition.

Edition # 1 – 49 sales from 1983 to 2011 with a top price of $18,172 for an 1570 edition (Ort1:4) in 2005.
Edition # 2 - 4 sales between 1985 & 2007 with a top price of $18,000 for a 1586 Ort 2:3 in 2007
Edition # 3 - 60 sales from 1985 to 2011 with a top price of $17,759 paid for a 1606 Ort 3 in 2000.
(Please note the condition of these maps is largely unknown, condition is a major contributing factor to value). (Ref: Van Den Broecke; Tooley; Shirley; Rosenthal)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - off white
Age of map color: - Original
Colors used: - Yellow, green, blue, pink
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 20in x 14 ½in (510mm x 370mm)
Plate size: - 19 ½in x 13 1/4in (495mm x 340mm)
Margins: - Min ½in (10mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Professional 11cm restoration to bottom margin, 1cm into image. Light soiling
Plate area: - Small 2cm sq professional restoration below the ST of Australis
Verso: - Map backed on fine archival Japanese paper

$17,500.00 USD
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1550 Sebastian Munster Original Antique Oval World Map - Columbus America

1550 Sebastian Munster Original Antique Oval World Map - Columbus America

Description:
This fine wood-block engraved original antique World Map was engraved by David Kandel, initials engraved bottom left "DK" and was published in the 1550 edition of Cosmographia by Sebastian Munster.
One of the most recognizable maps of the 16th century considered the first map to identify the Pacific Ocean, as here, 'Mare Pacificum.' This is the world of the educated 16th century European, divided into Asia, Europe, India, Africa and America. The southern latitudes are inhabited by a variety of sea monsters and sailing ships.
American continent is nearly unrecognizable, only a scant 58 years after European discovery by Christopher Columbus. North America is defined as Terra Florida showing an enormous inlet extending towards the eastern seaboard in the vicinity of modern day North Carolina named Verrazano's Sea. Apparently Verrazano, coasting the Outer Banks, observed the Pamlico Sound and assumed that beyond the narrow coastal banks, an open sea gave direct access to the pacific - wishful thinking at best. Verrazano's Sea appears so dramatically on few maps, but persisted in lesser forms for nearly a century. 
South America with tentacle like protrusions in all directions, is largely amorphous, but the Rio de la Plata and the Strait of Magellan are clear. Tierra del Fuego is enormous, with no mention of greater Terra Australias, an interesting omission by Munster. 
Europe is vaguely recognizable and connected, via an arctic peninsula, to Greenland and North America. 
Asia/Pacific extends eastward far enough to reappear just north of America. Ceylon is not present, but a landmass bearing roughly the shape and position of Sumatra is identified as Tapobrana (a term more commonly associated with Ceylon). Japan appears as Zipangri. 
Unlike many other world maps of the time, Munster has left out the concept of a 'Terra Australis Incognita' altogether choosing to show ocean instead.
Africa follows the Ptolemaic model with the Nile finding its source in a mountain range and two associated lakes. 
The whole is surrounded by twelve named and prominent wind heads - one for each direction.

Background: This wood-cut engraved World map was prepared for the 1550 edition of Sebastian Münster's Cosmographia to replace the earlier World map by Sebasian Munster which had appeared in the editions of the Geographia and Cosmographia from 1540 onwards. The publisher, from 1552, was Heinrich Petri, Münster's son-in-law. 
This "new world" map is on an oval projection, similar in many respects to the previous Munster world map, but with the woodcutter's initials "DK" added, identified as those of the engraver David Kandel, in the lower left-hand corner.
The titles of the wind-heads are now in banners and the east and west winds, unlike the 1540 version, do not protrude inside the oval circumference. North America still retains its unusual shape almost bisected by water but the earlier note indicating a route to the Moluccas has been omitted...."
The map was first issued in the 1550 edition of Cosmographia, and appeared in all subsequent editions through to 1578, with the title varying according to the language of the edition. On the verso the wood block is the title and text, in Latin.

Sebastian Münster (1488-1552) was a German cartographer, cosmographer, and Hebrew scholar whose work Cosmographia (1544; "Cosmography") was the earliest German description of the world and a major work in the revival of geographic thought in 16th-century Europe. It had numerous editions in different languages including Latin, French, Italian, English, and even Czech. Altogether, about 40 editions of the Cosmographia appeared between 1544 and 1628 and was one of the most successful and popular books of the 16th century. Münster was a major influence in popular thinking in Europe for the next 200 years.
This success was due not only to the level of descriptive detail but also to the fascinating full page maps & views as well as smaller woodcuts that were included in the text. Many of the woodcuts were executed by famous engravers of the time including Hans Holbein the Younger, Urs Graf, Hans Rudolph Manuel Deutsch, and David Kandel. 
Aside from the well-known maps present in the Cosmographia, the text is thickly sprinkled with vigorous views: portraits of kings and princes, costumes and occupations, habits and customs, flora and fauna, monsters, wonders, and horrors about the known -- and unknown -- world, and was undoubtedly one of the most widely read books of its time.
Münster acquired the material for his book in three ways. Firstly he researched all available literary sources across Germany, Switzerland and other parts of Europe. Secondly he obtained original manuscript material from locals all over Europe for description of the countryside, cities, villages, towns, rivers and local history. Finally, he obtained further material first hand on his travels (primarily in south-west Germany, Switzerland, and Alsace). 

In 1588 Sebastian Petri re-released Cosomgraphia and re-issued many of Munsters maps and views in the "copperplate style". The maps in this release were more sophisticated than with earlier publications of Cosomgraphia and were based on the 1570 release of Abraham Ortelius monumental work Theatrum Orbis Terrarum. (Ref: Shirley; Tooley; M&B)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - White
Age of map color: -  
Colors used: -  
General color appearance: -  
Paper size: - 15 3/4in x 12 1/2in (400mm x 310mm)
Plate size: - 15 3/4in x 12 1/2in (400mm x 310mm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (10mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - L&R margins extended, not affecting borders or image
Plate area: - None
Verso: - None

$3,250.00 USD
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1776 Cook & Whitchurch Old, Antique 1st Ed. Southern Hemisphere Map - Australia, New Zealand

1776 Cook & Whitchurch Old, Antique 1st Ed. Southern Hemisphere Map - Australia, New Zealand

  • Title : A Chart of the Southern Hemisphere shewing the Tracks of some of the most distinguished Navigators by Captain James Cook of His Majesty's Navy 
  • Ref #:  61111
  • Size: 23 1/2in x 22 1/2in (605mm x 575mm)
  • Date : 1776
  • Condition: (A) Very Good Condition

Description: 
This large, scarce, original antique 1st edition map, a sea-chart of the Southern Hemisphere by Captain James Cook, was engraved by William Whitchurch in 1776 (dated at the foot of the map) and was published by William Strahan, in The Strand, London in 1777.
This 1st English edition is scarce & hard to find, as opposed to the more common French edition of this Hemisphere map by Robert Benard, published in 1784.

Background: This map by James Cook was published as the premier map of his second voyage to the Southern Hemisphere, dispelling forever the myth of the Great Southern Land, showing the true cartographic nature of the southern hemisphere dominated by Australia & New Zealand. The map on a South Polar Projection also shows South America, the South Atlantic Ocean, South Africa, Madagascar, Australia - with Tasmania still joined to the mainland - New Zealand and the southern Pacific Ocean with islands. 
Cook has also included the tracks of previous navigators & explorer's, including Mendana in 1595, Quiros in 1606, Le Maire and Schouten in 1616, Tasman in 1642 and Bougainville in 1768, Furneaux, Wallis & of course Capt James Cook himself. Engraved within the explorer's tracks are the dates of their voyages and ships tracks are particularly noted around the Antarctic Circle with notations of ice fields seen during the voyages.

Cook's First Voyage (1768-1771)
The first voyage under Captain James Cook's command was primarily of a scientific nature. The expedition on the Endeavour initially sailed to Tahiti to observe the transit of the planet Venus in order to calculate the earth's distance from the sun. Cook landed on the South Pacific island in April of 1769 and in June of that year the astronomical observations were successfully completed. In addition to these labors, very good relations with the Tahitians were maintained and the naturalists Joseph Banks and Daniel C. Solander conducted extensive ethnological and botanical research. 
Another purpose of the voyage was to explore the South Seas to determine if an inhabitable continent existed in the mid-latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere. Upon leaving Tahiti, Cook named and charted the Society Islands and then continued southwest to New Zealand. His circumnavigation and exploration of that country also resulted in a detailed survey. Cook proceeded to Australia, where he charted the eastern coast for 2,000 miles, naming the area New South Wales. As a result of these surveys, both Australia and New Zealand were annexed by Great Britain. In addition to these explorations, the Endeavour returned to England without a single death from scurvy among its men, an historic feat at the time. The combination of these accomplishments brought Cook prominence, promotion, and the opportunity to lead further expeditions.

Cook's Second Voyage (1772-1775)
Based on the success of his first voyage, Cook was appointed by the Admiralty to lead a second expedition. Two ships were employed with Cook commanding the Resolution and Captain Tobias Furneaux in charge of the Adventure. The purpose was to circumnavigate the globe as far south as possible to confirm the location of a southern continent. Cook proved that there was no "Terra Australis," which supposedly was located between New Zealand and South America. Cook was convinced, however, that there was land beyond the southern ice fields. In his pursuit of this idea, this expedition was the first European voyage to cross the Antarctic Circle. In addition, in two great sweeps through the Southern latitudes, Cook made an incredible number of landfalls including New Zealand, Easter Island, the Marquesas, Tahiti and the Society Islands, the Tonga Islands, the New Hebrides, New Caledonia, and a number of smaller islands. 
In addition to these navigational accomplishments and the accompanying expansion of geographical knowledge, the expedition also recorded a vast amount of information regarding the Pacific islands and peoples, proved the value of the chronometer as an instrument for calculating longitude, and improved techniques for preventing scurvy.

Cook's Third Voyage (1776-1779)
In the course of his first two voyages, Cook circumnavigated the globe twice, sailed extensively into the Antarctic, and charted coastlines from Newfoundland to New Zealand. Following these achievements, Cook's third voyage was organized to seek an efficient route from England to southern and eastern Asia that would not entail rounding the Cape of Good Hope. The search for such a Northwest (or Northeast) Passage had been on the agenda of northern European mariners and merchants since the beginning of European expansion in the late fifteenth century. England's growing economic and colonial interests in India in the later eighteenth century provided the stimulus for the latest exploration for this route. 
Cook, again in command of the Resolution, was to approach the Northwest Passage from the Pacific accompanied by a second ship, the Discovery, captained by Charles Clerke. The ships left England separately, regrouped at Cape Town, and continued on to Tasmania, New Zealand, and Tahiti. The expedition then sailed north and made landfall at Christmas Island and the Hawaiian Islands. Cook continued northward and charted the west coast of North America from Northern California as far as the Bering Strait. He returned to Hawaii for the winter and was killed in a skirmish with natives on February 14, 1779. Upon Cook's death, Clerke took command of the expedition but died six months later. The ships returned to England in 1780 under John Gore, who had commanded the Discovery after Cook's death. From start to finish, the voyage had lasted more than four years. (Ref Tooley; M&B; Clancy)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - off white
Age of map color: -  
Colors used: -  
General color appearance: -   
Paper size: - 23 1/2in x 22 1/2in (605mm x 575mm)
Plate size: - 23in x 21 1/2in (585mm x 545mm)
Margins: - 1/2in (12mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Repair as noted
Plate area: -  9in repair to the left of the image from NZ to margin, no loss
Verso: - Repair as noted

$1,499.00 USD
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1812 De Vaugondy Large Twin Hemisphere World Map

1812 De Vaugondy Large Twin Hemisphere World Map

  • Title : Mappe-Monde Dressee Suivant les Nouvelles Relations et Assujettie aux Observations Astronomiques…, dated 1812
  • Date : 1812
  • Ref: 50672

This relatively scarce, very large, beautifully hand coloured original antique Twin Hemisphere World Map by Robert Du Vaugondy was engraved in 1812 - dated in the title cartouche - and was re-issued and published by his successor Charle Francois Delamarche.

Background: Fifth state of this attractive double hemisphere world first issued in 1749. The map has been updated with information, particularly the additional discoveries of Cook, La Perouse, Vancouver, and Mackensie as noted in the supplementary cartouche.
With these discoveries now reflected in the map, we no longer see the notion of a Northeast Passage, Tasmania is separated from the Australian mainland. However, much of the inland Pacific Northwest is still relatively blank. The tracks of explorations and trade routes are shown in detail throughout. The large title cartouche is draped with a garland of flowers. (Ref: Tooley; M&B)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - off white
Age of map color: - Original
Colors used: - Pink, yellow, green
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 31in x 22in (790mm x 560mm)
Plate size: - 29 1/2in x 18 3/4in (750mm x 475mm)
Margins: - Min 1in (25mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - None
Verso: - None

Overall Quality (in Bold):
Perfect/Fine/Very Good/Good/Fair/Poor

$1,250.00 USD
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1780 Cook Large Antique Map of The Southern Hemisphere

1780 Cook Large Antique Map of The Southern Hemisphere

  • TitleCarte De L ' Hemisphere Austral...Par le Capitaine Jacques Cook.
  • Date : 1780
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition
  • Ref:  35505
  • Size: 22 1/2in x 22 1/2in (575mm x 575mm)

Description: 
This fine, large original antique map, a sea-chart of the Southern Hemisphere was engraved by Robert Benard and published in the 1780 French edition of L'Histoire Generale des Voyages.

Background: The map is a South Polar Projection showing South America, the South Atlantic Ocean, South Africa, Madagascar, Australia - with Tasmania still joined to the mainland - New Zealand and the southern Pacific Ocean with islands. 
Also included are the tracks of the major navigators of the era including Mendana 1595, Quiros 1606, Le Maire and Schouten 1616, Tasman 1642 and Bougainville 1768, Furneaux, Wallis & of course Capt James Cook. Included are the dates of their voyages, ships tracks are particularly noted around the Antarctic Circle with notations of ice fields seen during the voyages. Cook's tracks are shown along with those of Tasman, Byron, Mendana, Bougainville, Bouvet, Halley, Wallis, Furneaux, Carteret, Schouteen and Quiros.

Cook was recognized by his contemporaries as a highly competent navigator and scientific observer. The map clearly details his departure from the more established routes crossing the Pacific at a higher latitude, making it inevitable that he reached New Holland's east coast. Note the more northerly route taken by Cooks predecessors through calmer waters, thus missing the prize of the east coast of Australia.
Shortly after the return of the Cook expedition (3rd) to England, copies of the engravings were smuggled out to Paris and a French issue of the third voyage was published in Paris, 1785. The engravings by Webber (Official artist of the voyage) were used by the French engraver Benard, with French titles substituted. These were of equal quality to the English edition, on good strong hand-made paper. Many of the views are the first ever seen in Europe of the Pacific Islands.
The first printed account of the first voyage under Cook's command was this anonymously published work. Surreptitiously edited and printed by Thomas Becket only two months after the expedition returned to England, it was published almost two years before the official account by John Hawkesworth appeared. As described on the title page, the book related "various occurrences of the voyage, with descriptions of several new discovered countries in the southern hemisphere." The work also provided much information about the native inhabitants encountered on the voyage, including "a concise vocabulary of the language of Otahitee" [Tahiti]. The text was quickly disseminated with a second English edition published in Dublin as well as translations into German and French the following year. French editions were also printed in 1773, 1777, 1782, and 1793. (Ref Tooley M&B)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - off white
Age of map color: -  
Colors used: -  
General color appearance: -   
Paper size: - 22 1/2in x 22 1/2in (575mm x 575mm)
Plate size: - 21 1/2in x 21 1/2in (545mm x 545mm)
Margins: - 1/2in (12mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: -  Folds as issued
Verso: - None

$1,250.00 USD
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1812 Pinkerton Large Old, Antique Stereographic Map of The Southern Hemisphere

1812 Pinkerton Large Old, Antique Stereographic Map of The Southern Hemisphere

Description: 
This very large and beautifully hand coloured original antique Stereographic Southern Hemisphere map was engraved by John Neele in 1812 - the date is engraved at the foot of the maps - and was published by the famous Scottish publisher John Pinkerton in his large folio Modern Atlas, which was published between 1809-14. 

Background: 
In geometry, the stereographic projection is a particular mapping (function) that projects a sphere onto a plane. The projection is defined on the entire sphere, except at one point: the projection point. Where it is defined, the mapping is smooth and bijective. It is conformal, meaning that it preserves angles. It is neither isometric nor area-preserving: that is, it preserves neither distances nor the areas of figures.
Intuitively, then, the stereographic projection is a way of picturing the sphere as the plane, with some inevitable compromises. Because the sphere and the plane appear in many areas of mathematics and its applications, so does the stereographic projection; it finds use in diverse fields including complex analysis, cartography, geology, and photography. In practice, the projection is carried out by computer or by hand using a special kind of graph paper called a stereographic net, shortened to stereonet, or Wulff net.

The stereographic projection was known to Hipparchus, Ptolemy and probably earlier to the Egyptians. It was originally known as the planisphere projection. Planisphaerium by Ptolemy is the oldest surviving document that describes it. One of its most important uses was the representation of celestial charts. The term planisphere is still used to refer to such charts.
In the 16th and 17th century, the equatorial aspect of the stereographic projection was commonly used for maps of the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. It is believed that already the map created in 1507 by Gualterius Lud was in stereographic projection, as were later the maps of Jean Roze (1542), Rumold Mercator (1595), and many others. In star charts, even this equatorial aspect had been utilised already by the ancient astronomers like Ptolemy.
François d'Aguilon gave the stereographic projection its current name in his 1613 work Opticorum libri sex philosophis juxta ac mathematicis utiles (Six Books of Optics, useful for philosophers and mathematicians alike)
In 1695, Edmond Halley, motivated by his interest in star charts, published the first mathematical proof that this map is conformal. He used the recently established tools of calculus, invented by his friend Isaac Newton. (Ref: Tooley; M&B)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper colour: - off white
Age of map colour: - Original & later
Colours used: - Green, pink, yellow
General colour appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 31in x 22in (790mm x 560mm)  
Plate size: - 31in x 22in (790mm x 560mm)  
Margins: - min 1in (25mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - None
Verso: - None

$850.00 USD
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1812 Pinkerton Large Old, Antique Stereographic Map of The Northern Hemisphere

1812 Pinkerton Large Old, Antique Stereographic Map of The Northern Hemisphere

Description: 
This very large and beautifully hand coloured original antique Stereographic Northern Hemisphere map was engraved by John Neele in 1812 - the date is engraved at the foot of the maps - and was published by the famous Scottish publisher John Pinkerton in his large folio Modern Atlas, which was published between 1809-14. 

Background: 
In geometry, the stereographic projection is a particular mapping (function) that projects a sphere onto a plane. The projection is defined on the entire sphere, except at one point: the projection point. Where it is defined, the mapping is smooth and bijective. It is conformal, meaning that it preserves angles. It is neither isometric nor area-preserving: that is, it preserves neither distances nor the areas of figures.
Intuitively, then, the stereographic projection is a way of picturing the sphere as the plane, with some inevitable compromises. Because the sphere and the plane appear in many areas of mathematics and its applications, so does the stereographic projection; it finds use in diverse fields including complex analysis, cartography, geology, and photography. In practice, the projection is carried out by computer or by hand using a special kind of graph paper called a stereographic net, shortened to stereonet, or Wulff net.

The stereographic projection was known to Hipparchus, Ptolemy and probably earlier to the Egyptians. It was originally known as the planisphere projection. Planisphaerium by Ptolemy is the oldest surviving document that describes it. One of its most important uses was the representation of celestial charts. The term planisphere is still used to refer to such charts.
In the 16th and 17th century, the equatorial aspect of the stereographic projection was commonly used for maps of the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. It is believed that already the map created in 1507 by Gualterius Lud was in stereographic projection, as were later the maps of Jean Roze (1542), Rumold Mercator (1595), and many others. In star charts, even this equatorial aspect had been utilised already by the ancient astronomers like Ptolemy.
François d'Aguilon gave the stereographic projection its current name in his 1613 work Opticorum libri sex philosophis juxta ac mathematicis utiles (Six Books of Optics, useful for philosophers and mathematicians alike)
In 1695, Edmond Halley, motivated by his interest in star charts, published the first mathematical proof that this map is conformal. He used the recently established tools of calculus, invented by his friend Isaac Newton. (Ref: Tooley; M&B)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper colour: - off white
Age of map colour: - Original & later
Colours used: - Green, pink, yellow
General colour appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 31in x 22in (790mm x 560mm)  
Plate size: - 31in x 22in (790mm x 560mm)  
Margins: - min 1in (25mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - None
Verso: - None

$750.00 USD
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1760 Gebauers Antique Map of Australia, Pacific, East Indies, China, Middle East

1760 Gebauers Antique Map of Australia, Pacific, East Indies, China, Middle East

  • TitleKarte von Ostindien, nach den neuesten Entdeckungen zur Erleuterung der geschichteder ostindischen Handlungs Geselschaften
  • Date : 1760
  • Condition: (A) Very Good Condition
  • Ref:  16283
  • Size: 15in x 9in (380mm x 230mm)

Description:
This fine beautifully hand colured original antique German map of Australia and the East Indies & Africa was published Johann Justine Gebauers in 1760 prior to the discoveries of Captain Cook some 20 odd years later. Unusual and scarce map of the region.

This is a beautiful map, quite highly detailed and wonderfully hand coloured. Australia shown joined to PNG with notes on the explorers Dampier, de Wit and Van Nuits all reaching Australia in the previous 17th century. The West coast of New Zealand is shown with the earlier discoveries. (Ref: M&B; Tooley)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy & stable
Paper color: - White
Age of map color: - Early  
Colors used: - Blue, yellow, pink  
General color appearance: - Authentic  
Paper size: - 15in x 9in (380mm x 230mm)
Paper size: - 14in x 8 1/2in (355mm x 215mm)
Margins: - Min 1/4in (10mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - Folds as issued
Verso: - None

$650.00 USD
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1799 De Vaugondy Delamarche Twin Hemisphere World Map

1799 De Vaugondy Delamarche Twin Hemisphere World Map

  • Title : Mappe-Monde par Robert de Vaugondy Geographe Corrigee par Delamarche son Successeur
  • Ref #:  50687
  • Size: 18in x 12 1/2in (460mm x 310mm)
  • Date : 1799
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition

Description:
This beautifully hand coloured original antique Twin Hemisphere World Map by Robert De Vaugondy was published by Charles Francois Delamarche, De Vaugondy's successor, in 1799. 

Fine twin hemisphere world map illustrating the known world at the end of the 18th century. Although almost complete there are a few regions of uncertainty. The route taken by Cook on his final voyage is included which reaches from Australia, New Zealand to Hawaii and the very northern reaches of western North America which were surveyed and mapped by Cook extensively. The recent discovery of Bass Strait separating Tasmania from the mainland of Australia is named  and although there is some indication of a northern Arctic region there is no mention of the great southern Antarctica regions. A great map showing the world at the beginning of modern transformation. (Ref: Tooley; M&B)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - White
Age of map color: - Early
Colors used: - Pink, green, blue, yellow
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper Size: - 18in x 12 1/2in (460mm x 310mm)
Plate size: - 17 1/2in x 10 3/4in (445mm x 275mm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (10mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Very light soiling
Plate area: - 2 light spots in Pacific & SE Asia
Verso: - Light soiling

$650.00 USD
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1815 Thomson Large Antique Map of The Eastern Hemisphere, Australia

1815 Thomson Large Antique Map of The Eastern Hemisphere, Australia

  • Title: Eastern Hemisphere
  • Date: 1815
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition
  • Ref: 30863
  • Size: 29in x 21in (740mm x 535mm)

Description:
This large map of the Eastern Hemisphere was engraved in 1815 - the date is engraved at the foot of the map - and published by John Thomson in his 1817 edition of A New General Atlas of the World. As with all Thomson's maps this is beautifully engraved with superb detail and original hand color, a fine map. (Tooley: Moreland & Bannister)

Condition Report:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - off white
Age of map color: - Original
Colors used: - Green, pink, yellow, blue
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 29in x 21in (740mm x 535mm)
Plate size: - 23in x 20in (380mm x 505mm)
Margins: - Min 1in (25mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Light offsetting
Plate area: - None
Verso: - None

$425.00 USD
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1750 Admiral George Anson & Lattre Large Antique World Map, California Island

1750 Admiral George Anson & Lattre Large Antique World Map, California Island

  • TitleCarte dans laquelle on Voit la Route que le Centurion a Tenu dans la Voiage au tour du Monde
  • Date : 1750
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition
  • Ref:  92607
  • Size: 16 1/2in x 11in (420mm x 280mm)

Description: 
This finely engraved beautifully hand coloured original antique World Map - showing California as an Island - illustrates the route taken by Admiral George Anson in his ship the Centurion in his global voyage of discovery between 1740 & 1744. 

The map was engraved by Frenchman Jean Lattre in 1750 and was published in the French edition of Ansons book A Voyage round the World, in the Years MDCCXL, I, II, III,IV. The book was written by Richard Walter, Chaplin aboard Ansons flagship,  Centurion.

In his famous voyage (1740–44) around the world, Anson, in spite of shipwrecks and scurvy, inflicted great damage on Spanish shipping and returned to England with a rich prize. He was raised to the peerage after his popular naval victory (1747) off Cape Finisterre. Appointed then as first lord of the admiralty, he assisted William Pitt, Lord Chatham, in reorganizing naval administration.
British navigators in the 1700`s were often interested in more than increasing the glory of God & Country. In September 1740 Commodore Anson set off across the Atlantic with six poorly manned, ill-equipped vessels to capture Spanish treasure ships in the Pacific. He lost three ships rounding Cape Horn but went on to raid Spanish mining settlements on the coast of Chili. Although he and his crew suffered incredible hardships while crossing the Pacific in their one remaining ship, the Centurion, Anson managed to capture a Spanish treasure galleon near the Philippines. He sold this prize for £400,000 in Canton, China, the Centurion being the first British warship to enter Chinese waters. By the time he reached England in June 1744, more than half the original crew of nearly 2,000 men had died, chiefly of scurvy. (Ref: Tooley)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy & stable
Paper color: - White
Age of map color: - Early
Colors used: -  Yellow, green, pink
General color appearance: -  Authentic
Paper size: - 16 1/2in x 11in (420mm x 280mm)
Plate size: - 16 1/2in x 11in (420mm x 280mm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (12mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - Folds as issued, very light offsetting
Verso: - None

$475.00 USD
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1745 George Anson Antique Mercators World Map, Island of California, New Holland

1745 George Anson Antique Mercators World Map, Island of California, New Holland

  • TitleA Chart shewing The Track of the Centurion round the World
  • Ref #:  16292
  • Size: 19in x 10 1/2in (485mm x 265mm)
  • Date : 1745
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition

Description: 
This fine original antique World Map centering on Australia and the Pacific - with North America & the Island of California - covering  the route taken by Admiral George Anson & the ship the Centurion in his global voyage between 1740 & 1744. 
The map was engraved by Richard Seale and was published in the English edition of Ansons book A Voyage round the World, in the Years MDCCXL, I, II, III,IV. The book was written by Richard Walter, Chaplin aboard Ansons flagship,  Centurion.

In his famous voyage (1740–44) around the world, Anson, in spite of shipwrecks and scurvy, inflicted great damage on Spanish shipping and returned to England with a rich prize. He was raised to the peerage after his popular naval victory (1747) off Cape Finisterre. Appointed then as first lord of the admiralty, he assisted William Pitt, Lord Chatham, in reorganizing naval administration.
British navigators in the 1700`s were often interested in more than increasing the glory of God & Country. In September 1740 Commodore Anson set off across the Atlantic with six poorly manned, ill-equipped vessels to capture Spanish treasure ships in the Pacific. He lost three ships rounding Cape Horn but went on to raid Spanish mining settlements on the coast of Chili. Although he and his crew suffered incredible hardships while crossing the Pacific in their one remaining ship, the Centurion, Anson managed to capture a Spanish treasure galleon near the Philippines. He sold this prize for £400,000 in Canton, China, the Centurion being the first British warship to enter Chinese waters. By the time he reached England in June 1744, more than half the original crew of nearly 2,000 men had died, chiefly of scurvy. (Ref: Tooley)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy & stable
Paper color: - White
Age of map color: -  
Colors used: -   
General color appearance: -   
Paper size: - 19in x 10 1/2in (485mm x 265mm)
Plate size: - 16 1/2in x 9 1/2in (420mm x 245mm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (12mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - Light horizontal crease
Verso: - None

$325.00 USD
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1762 Lotter Twin Hemisphere Antique World Map

1762 Lotter Twin Hemisphere Antique World Map

Description: 
This beautifully hand coloured original antique Twin Hemisphere World Map by Tobias Conrad Lotter was engraved by Tobias Lobeck and  published in the 1762 edition of Atlas Geographicus Portatilis, Augsburg.

The 18th century saw a cartographical revival in Germany and the increased output included some miniature atlases. This atlas is one such example with each map although small engraved with accurate and varied detail. (Ref: Tooley, M&B)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - off white
Age of map color: - Original
Colors used: - Pink, green, yellow
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 5 1/2in x 4 1/2in (140mm x 115mm)
Plate size: - 5 1/2in x 4 1/2in (140mm x 115mm)
Margins: - Min 1/4in (5mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - None
Verso: - None

$275.00 USD
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1856 Dufour Very Large Antique Hydrographic World Map on Mercators Projection

1856 Dufour Very Large Antique Hydrographic World Map on Mercators Projection

  • Title : Mappe-Monde Planispherique Physique et Hydrographique. CH Dyonnet..1856.
  • Ref #:  61019
  • Size: 33in x 24in (840mm x 610mm)
  • Date : 1856
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition

Description: 
This scarce very large elephant folio, finely executed hand coloured map of The World on Mercator's projection illustrating the worlds ocean  currents was engraved by Charles Dyonnet in 1856 - dated in the title - for Adolphe Hippolyte Dufour's monumental elephant folioAtlas Physique, Historique et Politique Geographie Moderne published by Pauline Et La Chevalier, Paris.  

Adolphe Hippolyte Dufour (1795 - 1865) also known as Auguste-Henri Dufour, was a Paris based map and atlas publisher active in the middle to late 19th century. Dufour claimed to be a student of another French cartographer, Emile Lapie. He is known to have worked with numerous other cartographers, publishers and engravers of the period including Charles Dyonnet and Duvotenay. His corpus includes numerous maps and atlases, the most striking of which is probably his monumental elephant folioAtlas Universel physique, historique et politique geographie ancienne et moderne. Dufour's student and successor was Alexandre Vuillemin. 

Charles Dyonnet (fl. c. 1822 - c. 1880) was an extremely active Paris based engraver working in the mid to late 19th century. From his offices at 220 Rue St. Jacques, Paris, Dyonnet engraved numerous maps for many of the most prominent 19th French cartographic publishers including Vuillemin, Dufour, Fremin and Duvotenay. From 1850-1861, he held the coveted position of "Graveur du Dépot de la Marine," and in this position engraved numerous French naval and military maps. Dyonnet had a detail oriented and aesthetically minded hand and is responsible from some of the most beautiful French maps to emerge during the 19th century. (Ref: M&B; Tooley)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy & stable
Paper color: - White
Age of map color: - Original 
Colors used: - Yellow, red, green, blue
General color appearance: - Authentic 
Paper size: - 33in x 24in (840mm x 610mm)
Paper size: - 33in x 24in (840mm x 610mm)
Margins: - Min 1in (24mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Light soiling in margins
Plate area: - None
Verso: - Light soiling

$275.00 USD
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1704 Bodenehr Antique Twin Hemisphere World Map, California as an Island

1704 Bodenehr Antique Twin Hemisphere World Map, California as an Island

  • Title : Der Gantze Welt Kreis in seinen Zwey Grossen Begriffen
  • Ref #:  92831
  • Size: 7in x 6in (180mm x 150mm)
  • Date : 1704
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition

Description: 
This fine hand coloured original antique twin Hemisphere World map was published by Gabriel Bodenehr in the 1704 edition of Atlas Curieux  

A bold border and decorative title cartouche enclose this miniature map of the world. The double hemisphere includes the Island of California, a blank Northwest coast of North America, and partial coastlines for Australia and New Zealand. Tucked between the spheres are two polar projections. (Ref: M&B; Tooley)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy & stable
Paper color: - White
Age of map color: - Early
Colors used: - Blue, yellow, green, pink
General color appearance: - Authentic  
Paper size: - 7in x 6in (180mm x 150mm)
Paper size: - 6in x 5 1/4in (150mm x 135mm)
Margins: - Min 1/4in (6mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - None
Verso: - None

$275.00 USD
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1767 Clouet Antique Twin Hemisphere World Map - Misshapen Australia

1767 Clouet Antique Twin Hemisphere World Map - Misshapen Australia

Description:
This fine, large beautifully hand coloured original antique Twin Hemisphere World Map - with an unusually depicted southern coast of Australia and French text on the General views of the World at the time - by Jean Baptiste Louis Clouet (1730-87) was published byMondhare et Jean, Paris in the 1767 edition of Clouets Atlas Geographie moderne avec une introduction.  (Ref: M&B; Tooley)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy & stable
Paper color: - White
Age of map color: - Original
Colors used: - Yellow, blue, pink
General color appearance: - Authentic  
Paper size: - 23in x 16in (585mm x 410mm)
Plate size: - 22 1/2in x 13in (575mm x 330mm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (12mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - None
Verso: - None

$275.00 USD
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