Jean Baptiste Bourguignon D'Anville (1697-1782)

Profile :
Following the death of Guillaume Delisle, D'Anville continued the line of progressive French cartographers which had begun with Nicolas Sanson in the previous century.
He is said to have designed his first map at the age of fifteen and in a long and active life he produced a great number of elegantly engraved maps, noted for their scholarship and accuracy. If anything, he was even more critical of the work of his predecessors than Delisle and his exacting standards soon brought him international recognition as the finest cartographer of his time. In fact, during his whole life he never travelled outside Paris but he built up a vast collection of cartographic material which eventually was passed to the Bibliotheque Nationale.
He was specially interested in the geography of the East and he designed maps for a Description geographique de Ia Chine by Pere J. B. du Halde (1735), a notable work of the day based on surveys and reports of Jesuit missionaries. These maps were also issued in Nouvel Atlas de Ia Chine in 1737 and were the first to give a reasonably accurate picture of that remote land. From about 1740 onwards he published collections of maps under the title Atlas Generate which went through numerous expanding editions in various languages; English editions were printed by Robert Sayer, Laurie and Whittle, and others into the next century

Jean Baptiste Bourguignon d' Anville (44)

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1738 J B D Anville Antique Map of North Africa, Spain, Sardinia & Sicily

1738 J B D Anville Antique Map of North Africa, Spain, Sardinia & Sicily

  • Title : Carte de La Partie de L Afrique ou les Carthaginios de L Histoire Ancienne de Mr Rollin..Sr D Anville...1738
  • Size: 20in x 12in (510mm x 303mm)
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition
  • Date : 1738
  • Ref #:  70314

Description:
This magnificent original hand coloured copper-plate engraved antique map of North Africa, Spain, Sardinia & Sicily - with an inset plan of Carthage by Jean Baptiste Bourguignon D Anville in 1738 - dated - was published in Mr Charles Rollins Atlas. (Ref: M&B; Tooley)

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: - Original
Colors used: - Blue, pink, red, green, yellow
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 20in x 12in (510mm x 303mm)
Plate size: - 19 1/2in x 10 1/2in (495mm x 265mm)
Margins: - Min 1in (25mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - None
Verso: - None

Background: 
Being part of the Mediterranean world, the northern coasts of the African continent as far as the Straits of Gibraltar and even round to the area of the Fortunate Isles (the Canaries) were reasonably well known and quite accurately mapped from ancient times. In particular, Egypt and the Nile Valley were well defined and the Nile itself was, of course, one of the rivers separating the continents in medieval T-O maps. Through Arab traders the shape of the east coast, down the Red Sea as far as the equator, was also known but detail shown in the interior faded into deserts with occasional mountain ranges and mythical rivers. The southern part of the continent, in the Ptolemaic tradition, was assumed to curve to the east to form a land-locked Indian Ocean. The voyages of the Portuguese, organized by Henry the Navigator in the fifteenth century, completely changed the picture and by the end of the century Vasco da Gama had rounded the Cape enabling cartographers to draw a quite presentable coastal outline of the whole continent, even if the interior was to remain largely unknown for the next two or three centuries.
The first separately printed map of Africa (as with the other known continents) appeared in Munster\\\'s Geographia from 1540 onwards and the first atlas devoted to Africa only was published in 1588 in Venice by Livio Sanuto, but the finest individual map of the century was that engraved on 8 sheets by Gastaldi, published in Venice in 1564. Apart from maps in sixteenth-century atlases generally there were also magnificent marine maps of 1596 by Jan van Linschoten (engraved by van Langrens) of the southern half of the continent with highly imaginative and decorative detail in the interior. In the next century there were many attractive maps including those of Mercator/Hondius (1606), Speed (1627), Blaeu (1 630), Visscher (1636), de Wit (c. 1670), all embellished with vignettes of harbours and principal towns and bordered with elaborate and colourful figures of their inhabitants, but the interior remained uncharted with the exception of that part of the continent known as Ethiopia, the name which was applied to a wide area including present-day Abyssinia. Here the legends of Prester John lingered on and, as so often happened in other remote parts of the world, the only certain knowledge of the region was provided by Jesuit missionaries. Among these was Father Geronimo Lobo (1595-1678), whose work A Voyage to Abyssinia was used as the basis for a remarkably accurate map published by a German scholar, Hiob Ludolf in 1683. Despite the formidable problems which faced them, the French cartographers G. Delisle (c. 1700-22), J. B. B. d\\\'Anville (1727-49) and N. Bellin (1754) greatly improved the standards of mapping of the continent, improvements which were usually, although not always, maintained by Homann, Seutter, de Ia Rochette, Bowen, Faden and many others in the later years of the century.

$149.00 USD
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1740 J B D Anville Antique Map Gulf Of The Black Sea, Turkey, Crimea & Armenia

1740 J B D Anville Antique Map Gulf Of The Black Sea, Turkey, Crimea & Armenia

  • Title : L Asie Mineure Et Le Bosphorepour L Histoire Ancienne de Mr Rollin...D Anville...1740
  • Size: 16in x 13in (405mm x 330mm)
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition
  • Date : 1740
  • Ref #:  70312

Description:
This magnificent original hand coloured copper-plate engraved antique map of The Black Sea, Turkey, Crimea & Armenia by Jean Baptiste Bourguignon D Anville in 1740 - dated - was published in Mr Charles Rollins Atlas. (Ref: M&B; Tooley)

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: - Original
Colors used: - Blue, pink, red, green, yellow
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 16in x 13in (405mm x 330mm)
Plate size: - 14in x 11 1/2in (355mm x 290mm)
Margins: - Min 1in (25mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - None
Verso: - None

Background: 
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.[1] It is supplied by a number of major rivers, such as the Danube, Dnieper, Southern Bug, Dniester, Don, and the Rioni. About a third of Europe drains into the Black Sea,[2] including the countries of Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Georgia, Germany, Hungary, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Turkey and Ukraine.

$125.00 USD
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1743 D Anville & CA Coypel Large Antique Map of Italy, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica

1743 D Anville & CA Coypel Large Antique Map of Italy, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica

  • Title : L Italie Publiee Sous Les Auspices De Monseigneur Le Duc D Orleans, Premier Prince Du Sang....Par L Sr D Anville...MDCCXLIII 
  • Date : 1743
  • Condition: (A) Very Good Condition
  • Ref:  92312
  • Size: 32in x 28in (820mm x 710mm)

Description:
This large scarce original copper-plate engraved antique map of contemporary Italy, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica & Malta by Charles-Antoine Coypel was engraved by Pierre-Alexandre Aveline (1702–1760) (both names engraved under cartouche) in 1743 - dated in cartouche - and was published by Jean-Baptiste Bourguinon D Anvilles in his large elephant folio atlas Atlas Generale.
A scarce and hard to find map with two famous names Charles-Antoine Coypel & Pierre-Alexandre Aveline engraved below the cartouche, I am assuming as both drawer & engraver.

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: -
Colors used: -
General color appearance: -
Paper size: - 32in x 28in (820mm x 710mm)
Plate size: - 31 1/2in x 27in (810mm x 690mm)
Margins: - Min 1/8in (2mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Top margin cropped to border
Plate area: - Light creasing
Verso: - Creasing

Background: 
Since classical times the countries bordering the enclosed waters of the Mediterranean had been well versed in the use of maps and sea charts and in Italy, more than anywhere else, the traditional knowledge was kept alive during the many hundreds of years following the collapse of the Roman Empire. By the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries the seamen of Venice, Genoa and Amalfi traded to far countries, from the Black Sea ports and the coasts of Palestine and Egypt in the East to Flanders and the southern coasts of England and Ireland in the West, their voyages guided by portulan charts and the use of the newly invented compass. For a time Italian supremacy in cartography passed to Aragon and the Catalan map makers based on Majorca, but by the year 1400 the power and wealth of the city states of Venice, Genoa, Florence and Milan surpassed any in Europe. Florence, especially, under the rule of the Medici family, became not only a great trading and financial centre but also the focal point of the rediscovery of the arts and learning of the ancient world. In this milieu a number of manuscript world maps were produced, of which one by Fra Mauro (c. 1459) is the most notable, but the event of the greatest importance in the history of cartography occurred in the year 1400 when a Florentine, Palla Strozzi, brought from Constantinople a Greek manuscript copy of Claudius Ptolemy\\\'s Geographia, which, 1,250 years after its compilation, came as a revelation to scholars in Western Europe. In the following fifty years or so manuscript copies, translated into Latin and other languages, became available in limited numbers but the invention of movable-type printing transformed the scene: the first copy without maps being printed in 1475 followed by many with copper-engraved maps, at Bologna in 1477, Rome 1478, 1490, 1507 and 1508, and Florence 1482.
About the year 1485 the first book of sea charts, compiled by Bartolommeo dalli Sonetti, was printed in Venice and in the first part of the sixteenth century a number of world maps were published, among them one compiled in 1506 by Giovanni Contarini, engraved by Francesco Rosselli, which was the first printed map to show the discoveries in the New World. In the following years there were many attractive and unusual maps of Islands (Isolano) by Bordone, Camocio and Porcacchi, but more important was the work of Giacomo (Jacopo) Gastaldi, a native of Piedmont who started life as an engineer in the service of the Venetian Republic before turning to cartography as a profession. His maps, produced in great variety and quantity, were beautifully drawn copperplate engravings and his style and techniques were widely copied by his contemporaries. From about 1550 to 1580 many of Gastaldi\\\'s maps appeared in the collections of maps known as Lafreri \\\'atlases\\\', a term applied to groups of maps by different cartographers brought together in one binding. As the contents of such collections varied considerably they were no doubt assembled at the special request of wealthy patrons and are now very rare indeed.
About this time, for a variety of historical and commercial reasons, Italy\\\'s position as the leading trading and financial nation rapidly declined and with it her superiority in cartography was lost to the vigorous new states in the Low Countries. That is not to say, of course, that Italian skills as map makers were lost entirely for it was not until 1620 that the first printed maps of Italy by an Italian, Giovanni Magini, appeared, and much later in the century there were fine maps by Giacomo de Rossi and Vincenzo Coronelli, the latter leading a revival of interest in cartography at the end of the century. Coronelli was also famous for the construction of magnificent large-size globes and for the foundation in Venice in 1680 of the first geographical society.
In the eighteenth century the best-known names are Antonio Zatta, Rizzi-Zannoni and Giovanni Cassini.
We ought to mention the work of Baptista Boazio who drew a series of maps in A Summarie and True Discourse of Sir Francis Drake\\\'s West Indian Voyage, published in 1588-89, and who is especially noted for a very fine map of Ireland printed in 1599 which was incorporated in the later editions of the Ortelius atlases. It is perhaps appropriate also to refer to two English map makers who spent many years in exile in Italy: the first, George Lily, famous for the splendid map of the British Isles issued in Rome in 1546, and the second, Robert Dudley, who exactly one hundred years later was responsible for the finest sea atlas of the day, Dell\\\' Arcano del Mare, published in Florence. Both of these are described in greater detail elsewhere in this handbook. (Ref: Tooley, Koeman)

$475.00 USD
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1745 D Anville & Childs Antique Map of Senegal, Fort St Louis, African Slavary

1745 D Anville & Childs Antique Map of Senegal, Fort St Louis, African Slavary

  • Title : A General Map of The River Sanaga...Sr D Anville; A Map of the Entrance of the Sanaga; Island of Sanaga or St louis
  • Date : 1745
  • Size: 17 1/2in x 10in (440mm x 255mm)
  • Ref #:  61152
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition

Description: 
This large hand coloured original copper-plate engraved antique map of Senegal and the Sanaga or Senegal River, along with a map of the entrance to the River and the Slave Island of Sanaga or St Louis after D Anville, by Graham Childs in 1745.

Background: These 3 maps are the key to a dark history of Slavery on the West Coast of Africa, in the country of Senegal. The first map shows the River of Senegal which would have been used to transport captured African slaves to the forts situated at the mouth of the river. These forts were used as holding stages for the captives, along with many others along the West African coast, prior to being transported to the Americas from the 16th to 18th centuries. (Ref: M&B; Tooley)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy & stable
Paper color: - White
Age of map color: - Early  
Colors used: - Yellow, pink, green  
General color appearance: - Authentic   
Paper size: - 17 1/2in x 10in (440mm x 255mm)
Plate size: - 15 1/2in x 9 1/2in (395mm x 240mm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (12mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - Folds as issued
Verso: - None

$125.00 USD
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1746 J B D Anville Large Antique Map of North America

1746 J B D Anville Large Antique Map of North America

  • Title : Amerique Septentrionale Publiee sous les Auspices de Monseigneur le Duc d 'Orleans.. Par Le Snr. D Anville MDCCXLVI
  • Date : 1746
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition
  • Ref:  93207
  • Size: 42 1/2in x 37in (1.08m x 940mm)

Description:
This spectacular large original copper plate engraved antique map of North America by Jean-Baptiste Bourguinon D Anville was in 1746 - dated - and was published in his elphant folio Atlas Generale.

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: - Original & later
Colors used: - Blue, pink, red, green, yellow
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 42 1/2in x 37in (1.08m x 940mm)
Plate size: - 34 1/2in x 33 1/2in (875m x 850mm)
Margins: - Min 2in (50mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Light spotting in margins
Plate area: - Folds as issued
Verso: - Folds as issued

Background: 
To illustrate the cartography of the mid eighteenth century, especially American cartography, a D Anville map is essential. He dominated not only the French but all contemporary European cartography. He was foremost to leave blank spaces in his maps where knowledge was insufficient. His representation of the great lakes is superior to that of his contemporary John Mitchell who was responsible for publishing one of the most famous mid 18th century maps A Map of the British and French Dominions in North America on 8 sheets London in 1755. It was the standard map of North America up until the end of the century.
Eusebio Francisco Kinos discoveries of California in the beginning of the 18th century have now made full impact. D Anvilles map shows California as a peninsula and the Colorado and Gila Rivers are more accurately located. Note that the western part of the Gila River is named the Rio Grande, the Santa Cruz River is called Sta. Maria, and the San Pedro River is Terenate. (Ref: Tooley, Printed maps of America, 104; The Mapping of America 316)

$1,750.00 USD
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1751 D Anville Large Antique Map of West Asia - Saudi Arabia, Persia & India

1751 D Anville Large Antique Map of West Asia - Saudi Arabia, Persia & India

  • Title : Premiere Partie de la Carte D Asie contrnant La Turquie, L Arabie, La Perse, L Inde...Sr D Anville...MDCCLI
  • Size: 35 1/2in x 31 1/2in (900mm x 800mm)
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition
  • Date : 1751
  • Ref #:  92314

Description:
This large original copper plate engraved antique map of West Asia from Saudi Arabia, Persia and India was engraved in 1751 - dated in the tile cartouche - and was published in Jean-Baptiste Bourguinon D Anvilles large elephant folio atlas Atlas Generale.

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: - Original
Colors used: - Red
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 35 1/2in x 31 1/2in (900mm x 800mm)
Plate size: - 31 1/2in x 29 1/2in (810mm x 750mm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (12mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Two tan spots in top margin into border
Plate area: - Light creasing
Verso: - Light soiling

$475.00 USD
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1751 D Anville Very Large Antique Map The West Coast of Africa, Gambia & Senegal

1751 D Anville Very Large Antique Map The West Coast of Africa, Gambia & Senegal

  • Title : Carte Particuliere De La Cote Occidentale De L'Afrique Depusi le Cap Blanc jusqu'au Cap De Verga et du Cours Des Rivieres De Senega et de Gambie . .MDCCLI
  • Ref #:  22009
  • Size: 42in x 33in (1.07m x 840mm)
  • Date : 1751
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition

Description: 
This very large finely engraved, highly detailed original antique map of of the west coast of Africa covering Gambia and Senegal was engraved in 1751 - dated in the tile cartouche - and was published in Jean-Baptiste Bourguinon D'Anville's large elephant folio atlas Atlas Generale.

Description: D' Anville's maps have a clarity and a directness that is very 'modern'. He incorporated as much known information into his maps as he could. Map extent is from Cap Blanc in the north to Cap de Verga in the south.

Being part of the Mediterranean world, the northern coasts of the African continent as far as the Straits of Gibraltar and even round to the area of the Fortunate Isles (the Canaries) were reasonably well known and quite accurately mapped from ancient times. In particular, Egypt and the Nile Valley were well defined and the Nile itself was, of course, one of the rivers separating the continents in medieval T-O maps. Through Arab traders the shape of the east coast, down the Red Sea as far as the equator, was also known but detail shown in the interior faded into deserts with occasional mountain ranges and mythical rivers. The southern part of the continent, in the Ptolemaic tradition, was assumed to curve to the east to form a land-locked Indian Ocean. The voyages of the Portuguese, organized by Henry the Navigator in the fifteenth century, completely changed the picture and by the end of the century Vasco da Gama had rounded the Cape enabling cartographers to draw a quite presentable coastal outline of the whole continent, even if the interior was to remain largely unknown for the next two or three centuries.
The first separately printed map of Africa (as with the other known continents) appeared in Munster's Geographia from 1540 onwards and the first atlas devoted to Africa only was published in 1588 in Venice by Livio Sanuto, but the finest individual map of the century was that engraved on 8 sheets by Gastaldi, published in Venice in 1564. Apart from maps in sixteenth-century atlases generally there were also magnificent marine maps of 1596 by Jan van Linschoten (engraved by van Langrens) of the southern half of the continent with highly imaginative and decorative detail in the interior. In the next century there were many attractive maps including those of Mercator/Hondius (1606), Speed (1627), Blaeu (1 630), Visscher (1636), de Wit (c. 1670), all embellished with vignettes of harbours and principal towns and bordered with elaborate and colourful figures of their inhabitants, but the interior remained uncharted with the exception of that part of the continent known as Ethiopia, the name which was applied to a wide area including present-day Abyssinia. Here the legends of Prester John lingered on and, as so often happened in other remote parts of the world, the only certain knowledge of the region was provided by Jesuit missionaries. Among these was Father Geronimo Lobo (1595-1678), whose work A Voyage to Abyssinia was used as the basis for a remarkably accurate map published by a German scholar, Hiob Ludolf in 1683. Despite the formidable problems which faced them, the French cartographers G. Delisle (c. 1700-22), J. B. B. d'Anville (1727-49) and N. Bellin (1754) greatly improved the standards of mapping of the continent, improvements which were usually, although not always, maintained by Homann, Seutter, de Ia Rochette, Bowen, Faden and many others in the later years of the century. (Ref: Tooley, M&B)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - White
Age of map color: - 
Colors used: - 
General color appearance: - 
Paper size: - 42in x 33in (1.07m x 840mm)
Plate size: - 40 1/2in x 28in (1.02m x 710mm)
Margins: - Min 1in (25mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - Light text offsetting
Verso: - None

$375.00 USD
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1751 D Anville Very Large Antique Map The West Coast of Africa, Gambia & Senegal

1751 D Anville Very Large Antique Map The West Coast of Africa, Gambia & Senegal

  • Title : Carte Particuliere De La Cote Occidentale De L'Afrique Depusi le Cap Blanc jusqu'au Cap De Verga et du Cours Des Rivieres De Senega et de Gambie . .MDCCLI
  • Ref #:  92324
  • Size: 42in x 33in (1.07m x 840mm)
  • Date : 1751
  • Condition: (A) Very Good Condition

Description: 
This very large finely engraved, highly detailed original antique map of of the west coast of Africa covering Gambia and Senegal was engraved in 1751 - dated in the tile cartouche - and was published in Jean-Baptiste Bourguinon D'Anville's large elephant folio atlas Atlas Generale.

Description: D' Anville's maps have a clarity and a directness that is very 'modern'. He incorporated as much known information into his maps as he could. Map extent is from Cap Blanc in the north to Cap de Verga in the south.

Being part of the Mediterranean world, the northern coasts of the African continent as far as the Straits of Gibraltar and even round to the area of the Fortunate Isles (the Canaries) were reasonably well known and quite accurately mapped from ancient times. In particular, Egypt and the Nile Valley were well defined and the Nile itself was, of course, one of the rivers separating the continents in medieval T-O maps. Through Arab traders the shape of the east coast, down the Red Sea as far as the equator, was also known but detail shown in the interior faded into deserts with occasional mountain ranges and mythical rivers. The southern part of the continent, in the Ptolemaic tradition, was assumed to curve to the east to form a land-locked Indian Ocean. The voyages of the Portuguese, organized by Henry the Navigator in the fifteenth century, completely changed the picture and by the end of the century Vasco da Gama had rounded the Cape enabling cartographers to draw a quite presentable coastal outline of the whole continent, even if the interior was to remain largely unknown for the next two or three centuries.
The first separately printed map of Africa (as with the other known continents) appeared in Munster's Geographia from 1540 onwards and the first atlas devoted to Africa only was published in 1588 in Venice by Livio Sanuto, but the finest individual map of the century was that engraved on 8 sheets by Gastaldi, published in Venice in 1564. Apart from maps in sixteenth-century atlases generally there were also magnificent marine maps of 1596 by Jan van Linschoten (engraved by van Langrens) of the southern half of the continent with highly imaginative and decorative detail in the interior. In the next century there were many attractive maps including those of Mercator/Hondius (1606), Speed (1627), Blaeu (1 630), Visscher (1636), de Wit (c. 1670), all embellished with vignettes of harbours and principal towns and bordered with elaborate and colourful figures of their inhabitants, but the interior remained uncharted with the exception of that part of the continent known as Ethiopia, the name which was applied to a wide area including present-day Abyssinia. Here the legends of Prester John lingered on and, as so often happened in other remote parts of the world, the only certain knowledge of the region was provided by Jesuit missionaries. Among these was Father Geronimo Lobo (1595-1678), whose work A Voyage to Abyssinia was used as the basis for a remarkably accurate map published by a German scholar, Hiob Ludolf in 1683. Despite the formidable problems which faced them, the French cartographers G. Delisle (c. 1700-22), J. B. B. d'Anville (1727-49) and N. Bellin (1754) greatly improved the standards of mapping of the continent, improvements which were usually, although not always, maintained by Homann, Seutter, de Ia Rochette, Bowen, Faden and many others in the later years of the century. (Ref: Tooley, M&B)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - White
Age of map color: - 
Colors used: - 
General color appearance: - 
Paper size: - 42in x 33in (1.07m x 840mm)
Plate size: - 40 1/2in x 28in (1.02m x 710mm)
Margins: - Min 1in (25mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Light soiling
Plate area: - Light soiling
Verso: - Light soiling

$325.00 USD
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1752 D Anville Large Original Antique Map of India Sri Lanka Burma Siam - Scarce

1752 D Anville Large Original Antique Map of India Sri Lanka Burma Siam - Scarce

Description:
This large finely engraved scarce and highly detailed original antique map of India, Sri Lanka Burma & Thailand was engraved by Guillaume de la Haye in 1752 - dated in the tile cartouche - and was published in Jean-Baptiste Bourguinon D\'Anville\'s large elephant folio atlas Atlas Generale.

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: -
Colors used: -
General color appearance: -
Paper size: - 43in x 37 1/2in (1.1m x 950mm)
Plate size: - 41in x 35in (1.04m x 890mm)
Margins: - Min 1in (25mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Spotting
Plate area: - Spotting, aging toning along folds as issued
Verso: - Spotting, aging toning along folds as issued

Background: 
The map is drawn from numerous sources, including Ptolemy, Turkish and Indian geographies, and Jesuit surveys. More contemporary works by Bouchet in 1719 and Boudier in 1734 are seen both in the detail and inset river maps. The map reflects the level of knowledge of India & SE Asia at the time, especially of the interiors. The map has excellent detail of Southern India and coastlines were trade had been happening for centuries, but a conspicuous absence of detail of the northern interior
There are seven Inset maps that include the environs of Goa, entrance of the Ganges River and a wonderfully detailed depiction of the entrance to the Hugli River and other river tributes.

$750.00 USD
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1753 D Anville Large Original Antique Map of SE Coromandel Coast of India - Rare

1753 D Anville Large Original Antique Map of SE Coromandel Coast of India - Rare

Description:
This large finely engraved scarce and highly detailed original antique map of South East Coast of India, the Coromandel Coast was engraved by Guillaume de la Haye in 1753 - dated in the tile cartouche - and was published in Jean-Baptiste Bourguinon D\'Anville\'s large elephant folio atlas Atlas Generale.

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: - 
Colors used: - 
General color appearance: - 
Paper size: - 39 1/2in x 27in (1.1m x 685mm)
Plate size: - 38in x 19 1/2in (970mm x 495mm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (12mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Light spotting to right of image
Plate area: - Light spotting to right of image
Verso: - Light spotting to right of image

Background: 
The Coromandel Coast is the southeastern coast region of the Indian Subcontinent, between the Eastern Ghats and the Bay of Bengal of the Indian Ocean. The coastline runs between False Divi Point in the north to Kanyakumari in the south. Its definition can also include the northwestern coast of the island of Sri Lanka.

By late 1530 the Coromandel Coast was home to three Portuguese settlements at Nagapattinam, São Tomé de Meliapore, and Pulicat. Later, in the 17th and 18th centuries, the Coromandel Coast was the scene of rivalries among European powers for control of the India trade. The British established themselves at Fort St George (Madras) and Masulipatnam, the Dutch at Pulicat, Sadras and Covelong, the French at Pondicherry, Karaikal and Nizampatnam, the Danish in Dansborg at Tharangambadi.
The Coromandel Coast supplied Indian Muslim eunuchs to the Thai palace and court of Siam (modern Thailand). The Thai at times asked eunuchs from China to visit the court in Thailand and advise them on court ritual since they held them in high regard.
Eventually the British won out, although France retained the tiny enclaves of Pondichéry and Karaikal until 1954. Chinese lacquer goods, including boxes, screens, and chests, became known as \"Coromandel\" goods in the eighteenth century, because many Chinese exports were consolidated at the Coromandel ports.

$475.00 USD
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1754 D Anville Large Antique Map of The Caspian Sea

1754 D Anville Large Antique Map of The Caspian Sea

  • Title : Essai D Une Nouvelle Carte de la Mer Caspienne...November 1754
  • Ref #:  92317
  • Size: 21 1/2in x 14 1/2in (550mm x 370mm)
  • Date : 1754
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition 

Description: 
This large original antique map of of the Caspian Sea by Jean Baptiste Bourguignon D'Anville was engraved in 1754 - dated - and was published in D Anville's large elephant folio Atlas Generale. (Ref: M&B; Tooley)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - off white
Age of map color: -  
Colors used: -  
General color appearance: -  
Paper size: - 21 1/2in x 14 1/2in (550mm x 370mm)
Plate size: - 20 3/4in x 10 1/2in (525mm x 270mm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (12mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - Two very small worm holes bottom left
Verso: - None

$225.00 USD
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1754 D Anville Large Original Antique Map of Western Europe British Isles - Rare

1754 D Anville Large Original Antique Map of Western Europe British Isles - Rare

  • Title : Premiere Partie De La Carte D Europe...MDCCLIV
  • Size: 39 1/2in x 33in (1.03m x 840mm)
  • Ref #:  92307
  • Date : 1754
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition

Description:
This large finely engraved scarce and highly detailed original antique map of contemporary Western Europe and the British Isles was engraved by Guillaume de la Haye in 1754 - dated in the tile cartouche - and was published in Jean-Baptiste Bourguinon D\'Anville\'s large elephant folio atlas Atlas Generale.

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: - Original
Colors used: - Pink, yellow, green, blue
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 39 1/2in x 33in (1.03m x 840mm)
Plate size: - 38in x 32in (970mm x 815mm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (12mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - Light spotting, folds as issued
Verso: - Light spotting, folds as issued

Background: 
Fantastic historical map showing the fragmented political borders,hand coloured, of Western Europe in the mid 18th century from Poland to France and North Africa, including the British Isles.

$475.00 USD
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1755 D Anville & Bolton Large Antique Map of Asia, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, India

1755 D Anville & Bolton Large Antique Map of Asia, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, India

  • Title : First Part of Asia being Turkey, Arabia, Persia most of India and Tartary Performed by the Sr D Anville...Revised and Improved by Mr Bolton MDCCLV (1755)
  • Size: 31 1/2in x 30in (800mm x 765mm)
  • Condition: (A) Very Good Condition
  • Date : 1755
  • Ref #:  91298

Description:
This large original hand coloured, copper plate engraved antique map of western Asia from Turkey to Saudi Arabia to India by Solomon Bolton, after the French cartographer Jean Baptiste Bourguignon D Anville, was engraved in 1755 - dated - and published in the 1765 edition of Malachy Postlethweyts monumental 2 Volume tomes on The Universal Dictionary of Trade & Commerce concentrating on various states of trade, including slavery, between England and America published between 1751 & 1774.

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: - Early
Colors used: - Yellow, green, blue, pink
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 31 1/2in x 30in (800mm x 765mm)
Plate size: - 31 1/2in x 30in (800mm x 765mm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (10mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Top margin extended from plate mark
Plate area: - Folds as issued, small restoration to left fold
Verso: - Folds as issued

Background: 
Postlethweyt, Malachy 1707 – 1767
Malachy Postlethweyts Dictionary of Trade & Commerce: A monumental dictionary of trade and commerce. It is based in part on the Dictionnaire universel de Commerce (Paris: 1723-30) of Jacques Savary de Bruslon, under whose name it is often catalogued, but has been adapted by Postlethwayt for a British audience, with substantial enlargements and improvements, and entirely new material relating to England and her colonies. Postlethwayt devoted twenty years to the preparation of the dictionary, which was first published in 1751-55 & includes a description of British affairs in North America since the peace of 1763. 
As with his other works, the dictionary demonstrates Postlethway’s deep commitment to the expansion and strengthening of English trade. Included are entries for geographical locations (Africa, Antilles, Canada, Japan, Louisiana, &c.), products (brandy, cardamom, codfish, diamonds, sugar, &c.), trading companies (Dutch East India Company, English African Company, &c.), treaties of commerce, and a vast range of other information of value to merchants (bankruptcy, currency, bills of exchange, brokerage, exportation, landed interest, privateering, &c.). The Dictionary is also important for containing almost the whole substance of Richard Cantillon’s Essay on Commerce, its first appearance in print.

$475.00 USD
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1755 D Anville Large Old, Antique Map of North America, Great Lakes, Indian Wars

1755 D Anville Large Old, Antique Map of North America, Great Lakes, Indian Wars

  • Title : Canada Louisiane et Terres Anglois Par Le Sr. D Anville...MDCCLV
  • Ref #:  61106
  • Size: 46 1/2in x 35 3/4in (1.17m x 910mm)
  • Date : 1755
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition

Description:
This magnificent, scarce, very large (48in x 35in) & highly detail map of North America was engraved in 1755 - dated in the title cartouche - by George De La Haye and was published by Jean Baptiste Bourguignon D'Anville in his large elephant folio atlas Atlas Generale.
Geopolitically this map is extremely significant drawn as war between the Global Powers of the day, France, England & Spain, was breaking, known in Europe as the Seven Year War known in North America as the French & Indian war. (Please see below for more detail)


This map rivals John Mitchells "A Map of the British and French Dominions in North America published in 1755" - considered to be one of the most significant maps of North America published in the 18th & 19th centuries (a 1st edition of Mitchells map is currently for sale for $165,000).
I have included an image of the Mitchell map for comparison. The D' Anville map is considered by many to be cartographically superior to the Mitchell map, at a fraction of the price.

Background: This extraordinary map of the eastern half of North America extends from Newfoundland, Canada to St. Augustine, Florida, stretching westward beyond the Mississippi as far as modern day Texas. The map includes both the original colonial colonies along the Atlantic seaboard from Maine to Georgia and the French claims in Louisiana (the Mississippi Valley) and modern day Canada. Florida is acknowledged as a Spanish enclave. Elevation is rendered in profile with fortifications, towns, and American Indian villages identified. A large inset map centres on the course of the St. Lawrence River from the Isle Aux Coudres to Lake Ontario.
The is a very significant map, drawn from a definitive French perspective, defining the territorial alignments and claims within North America shortly following the outbreak of the French and Indian War, considered to be a New World reflection of the European Seven Years War. It is however notable that it began before the larger hostilities in Europe and most of the major battles involved primarily parties only loosely aligned with the French or English - most specifically American Indians and lawless frontiersman, who had their own political agenda.
The war began with French incursions into western Pennsylvania and other territories claimed simultaneously by the French, English and American Indian forces. Just prior to the war, the French, in the interest of broadening their hold on the lucrative fur trade, established a series of forts, all of which are here noted, along the length of the Mississippi and further east, including Fort Duquesne (here Fort de Quene, Pittsburgh), Fort de la Presquisle, and for Le Beouf (here, Fort de la Riv Jaus Beufs).
The map also recognizes British claims, only inland as far as the Appalachian Mountains, beyond which place names take on a noticeably French character. These last three forts occupied particularly contested territory under the control of the powerful British allied Iroquois League. The most contested of these was Fort Duquesne (modern day Pittsburgh) in direct opposition to another fort then being constructed by the Ohio Company, a trading and land speculation firm established by prominent Virginia colonials, including George Washington. The Virginian colonial governor responded to Duquesne by sending then Lieutenant George Washington and a band of Virginia militiamen to harass the French. The resulting Jumonville Affair, in which Washington oversaw an attack on a French Canadian diplomatic forces led by Joseph Coulon de Villiers de Jumonville, to warn the Ohio Company fort builders away from French claimed territory. The slaying of Jumonville and several other French diplomats prompted a response from French forces at Fort Duquesne, leading to Washington's retreat and construction of Fort Necessity, really little more than a palisaded shack, marked here just south of Fort Duquesne. These events, all of which occurred in May of 1754, were said to have increased hostilities in Europe and led to the start of the Seven Year War in 1755.
Beyond the political agenda of this map, is the map itself, being one of the finest and most heavily detailed maps of North America published in the mid 18th century. Ranking alongside the large 1755 Mitchell map in detail but judged by many as cartographically superior. Drawing on both French and British cartographical detail, D' Anville identifies countless American Indian tribes, many of which, like the Sioux and Missouri, the British had only vague knowledge. Moreover, he also includes detail such as swamps, rapids, fords, abandoned villages, and even the ancient remnants of mound builder culture in the Ohio Valley. D' Anville notably does not include Mitchell's fictional Lake Superior islands.
This map was originally published to accompany the pamphlet entitledMemoire sur la carte intitulee: Canada, Louisiane, & Terres angloises and was also published in four parts for D' Anville's Atlas General.

These large maps are hard to find in such good condition and make fantastic historical reference tools due to the size and high level of detail as with all D' Anvilles work. (Ref: Tooley, M&B)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - White
Age of map color: -  Original & late
Colors used: -  Yellow, green, pink
General color appearance: -  Authentic
Paper size: - 46 1/2in x 35 3/4in (1.17m x 910mm)
Plate size: - 45in x 35in (1.12m x 890mm)
Margins: - Min 1in (25mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - Light soiling & ceasing along folds
Verso: - Light soiling

$4,750.00 USD
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1755 JB D Anville Large Original Antique Map of North America, Great Lakes, Indian Wars

1755 JB D Anville Large Original Antique Map of North America, Great Lakes, Indian Wars

  • Title : Canada Louisiane et Terres Anglois Par Le Sr. D Anville...MDCCLV
  • Ref #:  61140
  • Size: 52in x 38in (1.32m x 960mm)
  • Date : 1755
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition

Description:
This magnificent, scarce, very large (52in x 38in) & highly detail map of North America was engraved in 1755 - dated in the title cartouche - by George De La Haye and was published by Jean Baptiste Bourguignon D Anville in his large elephant folio atlas Atlas Generale.
Geopolitically this map is extremely significant drawn as war between the Global Powers of the day, France, England & Spain, was breaking, known in Europe as the Seven Year War known in North America as the French & Indian war. (Please see below for more detail)

This map rivals John Mitchells "A Map of the British and French Dominions in North America published in 1755" - considered to be one of the most significant maps of North America published in the 18th & 19th centuries (a 1st edition of Mitchells map is currently for sale for $165,000).
I have included an image of the Mitchell map for comparison. The D Anville map is considered by many to be cartographically superior to the Mitchell map, at a fraction of the price. 

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - White
Age of map color: -  
Colors used: -  
General color appearance: -  
Paper size: - 52in x 38in (1.32m x 960mm)
Plate size: - 45in x 35in (1.12m x 890mm)
Margins: - Min 1in (25mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - Light ceasing along folds
Verso: - Very small worm holes

Background: This extraordinary map of the eastern half of North America extends from Newfoundland, Canada to St. Augustine, Florida, stretching westward beyond the Mississippi as far as modern day Texas. The map includes both the original colonial colonies along the Atlantic seaboard from Maine to Georgia and the French claims in Louisiana (the Mississippi Valley) and modern day Canada. Florida is acknowledged as a Spanish enclave. Elevation is rendered in profile with fortifications, towns, and American Indian villages identified. A large inset map centres on the course of the St. Lawrence River from the Isle Aux Coudres to Lake Ontario.
The is a very significant map, drawn from a definitive French perspective, defining the territorial alignments and claims within North America shortly following the outbreak of the French and Indian War, considered to be a New World reflection of the European Seven Years War. It is however notable that it began before the larger hostilities in Europe and most of the major battles involved primarily parties only loosely aligned with the French or English - most specifically American Indians and lawless frontiersman, who had their own political agenda.
The war began with French incursions into western Pennsylvania and other territories claimed simultaneously by the French, English and American Indian forces. Just prior to the war, the French, in the interest of broadening their hold on the lucrative fur trade, established a series of forts, all of which are here noted, along the length of the Mississippi and further east, including Fort Duquesne (here Fort de Quene, Pittsburgh), Fort de la Presquisle, and for Le Beouf (here, Fort de la Riv Jaus Beufs).
The map also recognizes British claims, only inland as far as the Appalachian Mountains, beyond which place names take on a noticeably French character. These last three forts occupied particularly contested territory under the control of the powerful British allied Iroquois League. The most contested of these was Fort Duquesne (modern day Pittsburgh) in direct opposition to another fort then being constructed by the Ohio Company, a trading and land speculation firm established by prominent Virginia colonials, including George Washington. The Virginian colonial governor responded to Duquesne by sending then Lieutenant George Washington and a band of Virginia militiamen to harass the French. The resulting Jumonville Affair, in which Washington oversaw an attack on a French Canadian diplomatic forces led by Joseph Coulon de Villiers de Jumonville, to warn the Ohio Company fort builders away from French claimed territory. The slaying of Jumonville and several other French diplomats prompted a response from French forces at Fort Duquesne, leading to Washingtons retreat and construction of Fort Necessity, really little more than a palisaded shack, marked here just south of Fort Duquesne. These events, all of which occurred in May of 1754, were said to have increased hostilities in Europe and led to the start of the Seven Year War in 1755.
Beyond the political agenda of this map, is the map itself, being one of the finest and most heavily detailed maps of North America published in the mid 18th century. Ranking alongside the large 1755 Mitchell map in detail but judged by many as cartographically superior. Drawing on both French and British cartographical detail, D Anville identifies countless American Indian tribes, many of which, like the Sioux and Missouri, the British had only vague knowledge. Moreover, he also includes detail such as swamps, rapids, fords, abandoned villages, and even the ancient remnants of mound builder culture in the Ohio Valley. D Anville notably does not include Mitchells fictional Lake Superior islands.
This map was originally published to accompany the pamphlet entitledMemoire sur la carte intitulee: Canada, Louisiane, & Terres angloises and was also published in four parts for D Anvilles Atlas General.

These large maps are hard to find in such good condition and make fantastic historical reference tools due to the size and high level of detail as with all D Anvilles work. (Ref: Tooley, M&B)

$3,999.00 USD
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1755 Thomas Bowen & D' Anville Large Antique Map of South America

1755 Thomas Bowen & D' Anville Large Antique Map of South America

  • TitleSouth America Performed Under The Patronage of Louis Duke of Oreleans....T. Bowen 1755
  • Date : 1755
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition
  • Ref:  92345
  • Size: 51 1/2in x 31 1/2in (1.31mm x 800mm)

Description:
This very large 3 sheet joined copper-plate engraved original antique map of South America was engraveClaude Ptolemydd by Thomas Bowen in 1755 - the date is engraved at the foot of the map - and was published by Solomon Bolton for Malachy Postlethweyt's 2 Volumes publication of Dictionary of Trade & Commercepublished in  1757.
The cartographical detail was borrowed from the same Jean-Baptiste Bourguinon D'Anville map published in the 1760 edition of his large elephant folio atlas Atlas Generale.

Background:
This map from the second edition of this famous dictionary, based in part on the Dictionaries universel de Commerce (Paris: 1723-30) of Jacques Savary de Bruslon, under whose name it is often catalogued, but was adapted by Postlethwayt for a British audience, with substantial enlargements and improvements, and entirely new material relating to England and her colonies. Postlethwayt devoted twenty years to the preparation of the dictionary, which was first published in 1751-55. The dictionary included a description of British affairs in North America since the peace of 1763. As with his other works, the dictionary demonstrates Postlethway’s deep commitment to the expansion and strengthening of English trade. Included are entries for geographical locations (Africa, Antilles, Canada, Japan, Louisiana, &c.), products (brandy, cardamom, codfish, diamonds, sugar, &c.), trading companies (Dutch East India Company, English African Company, &c.), treaties of commerce, and a vast range of other information of value to merchants (bankruptcy, currency, bills of exchange, brokerage, exportation, landed interest, privateering, &c.). 
The Dictionary is also important for containing almost the whole substance of Richard Cantillon’s Essay on Commerce, its first appearance in print (see Henry Higgs’1931 edition and translation of Cantillon). The substantial maps, engraved by T.Kitchin and R.S.Seale after J.B.B. D’Anville and S.Bolton, depict Europe (4 sheets), Asia (8 sheets), North America (4 sheets), South America (3 sheets), and Africa (3 sheets). (Ref: Tooley; M&B)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - white
Age of map color: - Early & later
Colors used: - Yellow, green, pink, blue  
General color appearance: - Authentic  
Paper size: - 51 1/2in x 31 1/2in (1.31mm x 800mm)
Plate size: - 48 1/2in x 30 1/2in (1.23mm x 770mm)
Margins: - min. 1in (25m)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - Folds as issued, light creasing along folds
Verso: - None

$1,250.00 USD
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1756 D Anville Large Antique Map of Greece & The Aegean Islands & Crete

1756 D Anville Large Antique Map of Greece & The Aegean Islands & Crete

  • Title : Les Cotes de la Grece et L Archipel par le D Anville...MDCCLVI (1756)
  • Size: 31in x 24in (790mm x 610mm)
  • Condition: (A) Very Good Condition
  • Date : 1756
  • Ref #:  92313

Description:
This large hand coloured original copper-plate engraved antique map of the Aegean Islands of Greece, south to Crete by Jean Baptiste Bourguignon D Anville was engraved in 1756 - dated in the tile cartouche - and was published in Jean-Baptiste Bourguinon D Anvilles large elephant folio atlas Atlas Generale. (Ref: Tooley, M&B)

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: -
Colors used: -
General color appearance: -
Paper size: - 31in x 24in (790mm x 610mm)
Plate size: - 29in x 24in (770mm x 610mm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (12mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Soiling in margins
Plate area: - Soiling bottom of image
Verso: - Soiling

Background: 
The Aegean Islands are the group of islands in the Aegean Sea, with mainland Greece to the west and north and Turkey to the east; the island of Crete delimits the sea to the south, those of Rhodes, Karpathos and Kasos to the southeast. The ancient Greek name of the Aegean Sea, Archipelago (ἀρχιπέλαγος, archipelagos) was later applied to the islands it contains and is now used more generally, to refer to any island group.
The vast majority of the Aegean Islands belong to Greece, being split among nine administrative regions. The only sizable possessions of Turkey in the Aegean Sea are Imbros (Gökçeada) and Tenedos (Bozcaada), in the northeastern part of the Sea. Various smaller islets off Turkeys western coast are also under Turkish sovereignty.

$225.00 USD
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1756 J B D Anville Large Antique Map Greece, Crete, Corfu, Aegean Isles Turkey

1756 J B D Anville Large Antique Map Greece, Crete, Corfu, Aegean Isles Turkey

Description:
This large original copper-plate engraved antique map of Greece, Crete & the Greek Islands by Jean Baptiste Bourguignon D\'Anville was engraved in 1756 - dated in the tile cartouche - and was published in Jean-Baptiste Bourguinon D\'Anvilles large elephant folio atlas Atlas Generale. (Ref: Tooley, M&B)

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: - Early
Colors used: - Yellow, pink, green, blue
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 34in x 23in (865m x 585mm)
Plate size: - 29in x 22in (735mm x 560mm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (12mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - None
Plate area: - None
Verso: - None

Background: 
While most of mainland Greece and the Aegean islands was under Ottoman control by the end of the 15th century, Cyprus and Crete remained Venetian territory and did not fall to the Ottomans until 1571 and 1670 respectively. The only part of the Greek-speaking world that escaped long-term Ottoman rule was the Ionian Islands, which remained Venetian until their capture by the First French Republic in 1797, then passed to the United Kingdom in 1809 until their unification with Greece in 1864.
While some Greeks in the Ionian Islands and Constantinople lived in prosperity, and Greeks of Constantinople (Phanariotes) achieved positions of power within the Ottoman administration, much of the population of mainland Greece suffered the economic consequences of the Ottoman conquest. Heavy taxes were enforced, and in later years the Ottoman Empire enacted a policy of creation of hereditary estates, effectively turning the rural Greek populations into serfs.
The Greek Orthodox Church and the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople were considered by the Ottoman governments as the ruling authorities of the entire Orthodox Christian population of the Ottoman Empire, whether ethnically Greek or not. Although the Ottoman state did not force non-Muslims to convert to Islam, Christians faced several types of discrimination intended to highlight their inferior status in the Ottoman Empire. Discrimination against Christians, particularly when combined with harsh treatment by local Ottoman authorities, led to conversions to Islam, if only superficially. In the 19th century, many crypto-Christians returned to their old religious allegiance.
The nature of Ottoman administration of Greece varied, though it was invariably arbitrary and often harsh. Some cities had governors appointed by the Sultan, while others (like Athens) were self-governed municipalities. Mountainous regions in the interior and many islands remained effectively autonomous from the central Ottoman state for many centuries.
When military conflicts broke out between the Ottoman Empire and other states, Greeks usually took up arms against the Ottomans, with few exceptions. Prior to the Greek Revolution of 1821, there had been a number of wars which saw Greeks fight against the Ottomans, such as the Greek participation in the Battle of Lepanto in 1571, the Epirus peasants\' revolts of 1600–1601 (led by the Orthodox bishop Dionysios Skylosophos), the Morean War of 1684–1699, and the Russian-instigated Orlov Revolt in 1770, which aimed at breaking up the Ottoman Empire in favor of Russian interests.[89][page needed] These uprisings were put down by the Ottomans with great bloodshed. On the other side, many Greeks were conscripted as Ottoman citizens to serve in the Ottoman army (and especially the Ottoman navy), while also the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, responsible for the Orthodox, remained in general loyal to the empire.
The 16th and 17th centuries are regarded as something of a dark age in Greek history, with the prospect of overthrowing Ottoman rule appearing remote with only the Ionian islands remaining free of Turkish domination. Corfu withstood three major sieges in 1537, 1571 and 1716 all of which resulted in the repulsion of the Ottomans. However, in the 18th century, due to their mastery of shipping and commerce, a wealthy and dispersed Greek merchant class arose. These merchants came to dominate trade within the Ottoman Empire, establishing communities throughout the Mediterranean, the Balkans, and Western Europe. Though the Ottoman conquest had cut Greece off from significant European intellectual movements such as the Reformation and the Enlightenment, these ideas together with the ideals of the French Revolution and romantic nationalism began to penetrate the Greek world via the mercantile diaspora. In the late 18th century, Rigas Feraios, the first revolutionary to envision an independent Greek state, published a series of documents relating to Greek independence, including but not limited to a national anthem and the first detailed map of Greece, in Vienna, and was murdered by Ottoman agents in 1798.

$375.00 USD
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1756 J B D Anville Large Antique Map of Egypt & The Red Sea

1756 J B D Anville Large Antique Map of Egypt & The Red Sea

Description:
This large original copper-plate engraved antique map of Egypt & the Read Sea by Jean Baptiste Bourguignon D\'Anville was engraved in 1765 - dated in the tile cartouche - and was published in Jean-Baptiste Bourguinon D\'Anvilles large elephant folio atlas Atlas Generale. (Ref: Tooley, M&B)

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: - 
Colors used: - 
General color appearance: - 
Paper size: - 22in x 15 1/2in (560mm x 395mm)
Plate size: - 20in x 13in (510mm x 330mm)
Margins: - Min 1in (25mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Light soiling
Plate area: - Light soiling
Verso: - Light soiling

Background: 
Being part of the Mediterranean world, the northern coasts of the African continent as far as the Straits of Gibraltar and even round to the area of the Fortunate Isles (the Canaries) were reasonably well known and quite accurately mapped from ancient times. In particular, Egypt and the Nile Valley were well defined and the Nile itself was, of course, one of the rivers separating the continents in medieval T-O maps. Through Arab traders the shape of the east coast, down the Red Sea as far as the equator, was also known but detail shown in the interior faded into deserts with occasional mountain ranges and mythical rivers. The southern part of the continent, in the Ptolemaic tradition, was assumed to curve to the east to form a land-locked Indian Ocean. The voyages of the Portuguese, organized by Henry the Navigator in the fifteenth century, completely changed the picture and by the end of the century Vasco da Gama had rounded the Cape enabling cartographers to draw a quite presentable coastal outline of the whole continent, even if the interior was to remain largely unknown for the next two or three centuries.
The first separately printed map of Africa (as with the other known continents) appeared in Munster\\\'s Geographia from 1540 onwards and the first atlas devoted to Africa only was published in 1588 in Venice by Livio Sanuto, but the finest individual map of the century was that engraved on 8 sheets by Gastaldi, published in Venice in 1564. Apart from maps in sixteenth-century atlases generally there were also magnificent marine maps of 1596 by Jan van Linschoten (engraved by van Langrens) of the southern half of the continent with highly imaginative and decorative detail in the interior. In the next century there were many attractive maps including those of Mercator/Hondius (1606), Speed (1627), Blaeu (1 630), Visscher (1636), de Wit (c. 1670), all embellished with vignettes of harbours and principal towns and bordered with elaborate and colourful figures of their inhabitants, but the interior remained uncharted with the exception of that part of the continent known as Ethiopia, the name which was applied to a wide area including present-day Abyssinia. Here the legends of Prester John lingered on and, as so often happened in other remote parts of the world, the only certain knowledge of the region was provided by Jesuit missionaries. Among these was Father Geronimo Lobo (1595-1678), whose work A Voyage to Abyssinia was used as the basis for a remarkably accurate map published by a German scholar, Hiob Ludolf in 1683. Despite the formidable problems which faced them, the French cartographers G. Delisle (c. 1700-22), J. B. B. d\\\'Anville (1727-49) and N. Bellin (1754) greatly improved the standards of mapping of the continent, improvements which were usually, although not always, maintained by Homann, Seutter, de Ia Rochette, Bowen, Faden and many others in the later years of the century.

$125.00 USD
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1758 D Anville Very Large Antique Map of Norway Sweden Iceland, Baltics & Russia

1758 D Anville Very Large Antique Map of Norway Sweden Iceland, Baltics & Russia

  • Title : Seconde Partie de la Carte D Europe contenant Le Danemark et la Norwege, La Suede et la Russie....MDCCLVIII
  • Size: 40 1/2in x 29 1/2in (1.02m x 760mm)
  • Condition: (A) Very Good Condition
  • Date : 1758
  • Ref #:  92308

Description:
This scarce, very large (40in x 29in) highly detail map of Northern Europe Norway, Sweden, Lithuania, Baltic Countries and European Russia - was engraved in 1758 - dated in the title cartouche - by George De La Haye and was published by Jean Baptiste Bourguignon D\'Anville in his large elephant folio atlas Atlas Generale.

General Definitions:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color : - off white
Age of map color: - Original
Colors used: - Yellow, Green, pink
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 40 1/2in x 29 1/2in (1.02m x 760mm)
Plate size: - 40in x 28 1/2in (1.0m x 725mm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (12mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Light toning
Plate area: - Folds as issued, light separation at corners of folds
Verso: - Age toning

Background: 
Before the fifteenth century the people of Southern Europe had little geographical knowledge of the Scandinavian World except from sketchy detail shown in the Catalan Atlas (1375) and on a number of portolani embracing Denmark and the southern tip of Norway. It was not until 1427 that a manuscript map prepared about that time by Claudius Clavus (b.1388) a Dane who spent some time in Rome, made available to scholars a tolerable outline of the northern countries and Greenland. That was to remain the best map available for the rest of the century and it was used as the basis for maps of Scandinavia in early printed editions of Ptolemy. Others by Nicolaus Cusanus (1491) and Ehrhard Etzlaub (c. 1492) followed but, needless to say, these are extremely rare; even the later maps by Olaus Magnus and Marcus Jordan, where they have survived at all , are known only by a very few examples. In fact, apart from the rare appearance of an early Ptolemy map, the oldest of Scandinavia which a collector is likely to find are those of Munster\'s Cosmograhy first published in 1544. In the following centuries the few maps and charts complied in Scandinavia were usually published in Amsterdam, Antwerp, Paris or Nuremberg, the most important maps often being incorporated in the major Dutch, French & German Atlases. (Ref: Tooley; M&B)

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