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1588 Ortelius Antique Rare (State 2:3) World Map

1588 Ortelius Antique Rare (State 2:3) World Map

This is a unique opportunity to purchase the rarest of all Abraham Ortelius world map's - Typus Orbis Terrarum - Ort 2, state 3 or Ort 2:3.
To put the scarcity of this map into context please consider. Ortelius published a total of 6950 world maps over three editions of his atlases. According to the foremost authority on Ortelius works, Marcel Van Den Broecke, only 411 total world maps are known to have survived. Of these 411 only 14 are the Ort 2 edition and of these 14 only 4 are Ort 2:3 state. Making this one of the rarest maps available on the market today. Blank verso.

Description:
Ortelius published 3 World maps over the life of his atlas Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, between 1570 & 1612. These maps are referred to as Ort 1, Ort 2 & Ort 3. Within these three map editions necessary changes, repairs & updates were made to the plates, referred to as states. Ort 1 required 5 changes or states. Ort 2 required 3 changes and Ort 3 changed twice. This map published in 1588 and the last state of Ort 2 is identified by the changes to the western South American coastline, whilst still retaining the decorative cloud surround as in Ort1. Ort 3 was changed by removing the cloud surrounds replacing them with medallions and strap-work This is a beautiful map with original hand colouring, on sturdy clean paper with original margins. Prior to my acquiring the map from Marcel P R van den Broecke - author of "Ortelius Atlas Maps" - the map underwent some small professional restoration. Backed and pressed onto archival Japanese paper, these restorations, a 2cm sq one to the image and an 11cm x 1cm one to the bottom margin, have been carried out professionally and do not detract in anyway from the map. A more comprehensive description is available below as is a Certificate of Authenticity from Marcel van den Broecke, that accompanies the map.

Map history & background.
Below is a list of the different editions and states of Typus Orbis Terrarum.

- 1st edition (Ort 1) – States 1.1 through to 1.5.
A total of 3250 maps from this plate were published between 1570 & 1584. Today it is estimated that there are 236 loose copies in circulation of all 5 states.

- 2nd edition (Ort 2) - States 2.1 through to 2.3.
A total of 500 maps from this plate were published between 1586 & 1588. Today it is estimated that there are 14 loose copies in circulation of all 3 states.

- 3rd edition (Ort 3) – States 3.1 through to 3.2.
A total of 3200 maps from this plate were published between 1589 & 1612. Today it is estimated that there are 161 loose copies in circulation of both states.

Ortelius' world map is a simplified one-sheet reduction of Mercator's large world map which had appeared the year before. Nearly all the legends, textual panels and decorative features of Mercator's map have been omitted; between the oval circumference of the map and the outer frame are now clouds and below, a quotation from Cicero. From surviving correspondence, it is known that Mercator generously encouraged Ortelius to make use of his published research; he also provided him with coordinates of places in America and other newly discovered regions of the world. In the first edition South America retains the unusual bulged south-west coast as drawn by Mercator. There is also a prudent comment adjacent to New Guinea querying whether this large island is part of the southern continent or not.

The original plate, like a number of others in the Atlas, were signed by the engraver Franciscus (Frans) Hogenberg and was used for the first sixteen editions of the Theatrum.
In nearly all places there is text on the reverse of the map in the language indicated but a few copies are known which lack reverse text. Between 1575 and 1579 the plate became cracked along the lower left hand corner. The crack was roughly mended and the whole border of the clouds substantially reworked; editions from 1579 to 1584 contain this revised state 2 of plate 1. Ortelius subsequently produced two further world maps, each slightly improved geographically.
Several of these states co-existed; for instance although plate 3 carries the date 1587, it does not seem to have been issued until 1592. Only one example has been sighted of the first state plate 2 of 1586. State 3 of plate 2 is also uncommon but it re-appears in the British Library's copy of the Dutch 1598 edition of the Theatrum which, as noted by Koeman, was often made up of earlier stock sheets.
Ortelius' map was copied widely, and derivatives were later used to illustrate works by Voisin, Broughton, Maffei, Bell-Forest, Petri, Hakluyt and others.
Cartographical sources were Gerard Mercator 1569 & Gastaldi 1561 world maps and Diego Gutierrez' portolan map of the Atlantic.

Next to the list at the bottom of the text, Ortelius mentions in his Catalogues Auctorum the world maps by Peter ab Aggere from Mechelen, Sebastian Cabotus from Venice, Laurentius Fries from Antwerp, Jacobus Gastaldi, Gemma Frisius from Antwerp, Guicciardinus from Antwerp, Doco ab Hemminga Frisius, and Orontius Finæus from Paris.

Background of Theatrum Orbis Terrarum
For the first time, in 1570, all the elements of the modern Atlas were brought to publication in Abraham Ortelius' Atlas Theatrum Orbis Terrarum. This substantial undertaking assembled fifty-three of the best available maps of the world by the most renowned and up to date geographers.
Unlike earlier compositions, such as the Italian composite or "Lafreri" Atlases, each of Ortelius' maps was engraved specifically for his Atlas according to uniform format. Through its launching, pre-eminence in map publishing was transferred from Italy to the Netherlands, leading to over a hundred years of Dutch supremacy in all facts of cartographical production.
There were a total of 7300 copies of Theatrum published between 1570 - 1612 from 31 editions.

Historical sales data
A total of 114 sales of this map across all editions from 1983 to 2011.
From the 1st edition there are 40 known sales, from the 2nd edition there are 3 known sales leaving 48 sales from the third edition. The following is a further breakdown of sales data per edition.

Edition # 1 – 49 sales from 1983 to 2011 with a top price of $18,172 for an 1570 edition (Ort1:4) in 2005.
Edition # 2 - 4 sales between 1985 & 2007 with a top price of $18,000 for a 1586 Ort 2:3 in 2007
Edition # 3 - 60 sales from 1985 to 2011 with a top price of $17,759 paid for a 1606 Ort 3 in 2000.
(Please note the condition of these maps is largely unknown, condition is a major contributing factor to value). (Ref: Van Den Broecke; Tooley; Shirley; Rosenthal)

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - off white
Age of map color: - Original
Colors used: - Yellow, green, blue, pink
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 20in x 14 ½in (510mm x 370mm)
Plate size: - 19 ½in x 13 1/4in (495mm x 340mm)
Margins: - Min ½in (10mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Professional 11cm restoration to bottom margin, 1cm into image. Light soiling
Plate area: - Small 2cm sq professional restoration below the ST of Australis
Verso: - Map backed on fine archival Japanese paper

$17,500.00 USD
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1817 Lord Macartney Antique Atlas of China

1817 Lord Macartney Antique Atlas of China

  • Title: Bibliotheque Portative Des Voyages Traduite De L Anglais Par MM. Henry et Breton Tome XXV - 1817
  • Date: 1817
  • Condition: (A+) Fine Condition
  • Ref : MACTP
  • Size: 8vo

Description:
This fine original antique French edition Atlas of the travels of Ambassador Lord Macartney travels in China between 1792 & 1794 was translated from the English by M Henry & M Breton and published by V Lepetit. Paris in 1817 - dated.
The atlas covers have been removed with front title page Pages are generally clean with light aging to borders, overall VG, 8vo, each page size is 7in x 5in (180mm x 125mm) 

This atlas contains 22 B&W copper-plate engraved prints, listed below.

1. Lord Macartney
2. Arbe a pain de Singe (Monkey Tree)
3. Feuille de Nopal avec Cochenille qui s y Nourit
4. Barque Cochinchinoise (Chinese Barge)
5. Mandarin de Curon
6. Insects qui produisent la Cire de la Cochinchine (Insects that produce the wax of the Cochin China)
7. Maniere de lever les Filets (Net fishing)
8. Pieds des Dames Chinoisec (feet of Chinese Ladies)
9. Chaise a Porteurs (Chair Porters)
10. Maniere de transporter les Fardeaux (Carrying freight)
12. Vue de la Grande Muraille de la Chinese (Great Wall of China)
13. Portrait de l Empereur Cohien Long
14. Bourse et Sceptre de L Empereur (Money & Sceptre of Emperor)
15. Fondateur de l Empire Chinois (Founder of Chinese Empire)
16. Maniere de elever L Eau (Water irrigation)
17. Charrue Chinoise (Plough)
18. Pecheurs portant leur canot et les Oiseaux avec les quels ils prennent le poisson (Using ducks to catch fish)
19. Maniere de degager le Riz de sa pellicule (Rice farming)
20. Cha-wha ou Camellia sesanqua (Camilla flower)
21. Pompe a Chaine (Irrigation)
22. Grotte du Camoens... 

Sir George, Earl Macartney, was born at Lissanoure, in the northern part of the County of Antrim, 14th May 1737. Having passed through Trinity College, he entered the Middle Temple, made an extended tour of Europe (becoming acquainted with Rousseau and other persons of eminence), and shortly after his return home in 1764, was, through an intimacy with Lord Holland, appointed a special envoy to negotiate a commercial treaty with Russia. His biographer says: "His knowledge of European politics alone fitted him for the undertaking; but a graceful person, with great suavity of manners, a conciliating disposition, and winning address, were considered as no slight recommendations at a female court, where such accomplishments, it was fair to conclude, might work their way, when great and unaccommodating talents alone would prove ineffectual."

From September 1792 to September 1794, he spent abroad as ambassador to China. The country was then little known, and Lord Macartney's published account of his embassy long continued the standard book of information on Chinese matters. Commenting on his mission, a writer says: "The amount of the benefit gained by this first diplomatic communication on the part of England with the Court of Pekin has been matter of dispute; but it is generally agreed that no other person could have accomplished more than was done by Lord MaCartney, whose conduct at least was well calculated to impress the subjects of the Celestial Empire with a respect for the country which he represented."[97] In 1795 he was sent on a confidential mission to Italy; and from November 1796 to November 1798 he was Governor of the Cape of Good Hope, then newly captured from the Dutch. "There is no praise," says Lord Melville, "to which he is not entitled on the score of his government of the Cape." All his nerve and tact were called forth in 1797 by an attempted mutiny of the British fleet in Simon's Bay, following the news of the mutiny at the Nore.
Impaired health obliged him to give up this, his last official post, and return home. The Union gave him unbounded satisfaction: writing during the negotiations, he said: "I bow with admiration and respect to those by whose wisdom this great and important object has been brought so near to its completion. Considering many things that have happened in my time, painful to recollect and invidious to mention, I little imagined to see this happy day. Thank God! I have seen it. I thank the Father of all mercies that he has been graciously pleased to prolong my days to this auspicious period. The measure before us has my dying voice. It will annihilate the vain hopes of a vain insidious foe from without, and, I trust, will contribute to defeat the projects of a dark and treacherous enemy within." His last years were passed in retirement at Chiswick; his enjoyment of the society of a large circle of eminent men being lessened by severe sufferings from gout. He died, childless, 31st March 1806, aged 68, and was buried at Chiswick. In 1792 he had been created a Viscount; in 1794 an Earl; and in 1796 a British peer. His features were regular and well proportioned, his countenance open, placid, and agreeable. He possessed all the dignity of the " old school," without its stiffness, and retained it in his dress, which he did not materially alter for the last forty years of his life. (Ref Clancy; Tooley; M&B) 

General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy and stable
Paper color: - off white
Age of map color: - 
Colors used: - 
General color appearance: - 
Page size: - 7in x 5in (180mm x 125mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Light age toning
Plate area: - None
Verso: - None

$650.00 USD
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1855 Hooker & Fitch Large Antique Print Hodgsonia or Lard Fruit from SE Asia

1855 Hooker & Fitch Large Antique Print Hodgsonia or Lard Fruit from SE Asia

  • Title: Hodgsonia Heteroclita, Hook. fil. et Thoms
  • Date: 1855
  • Ref: 80768
  • Size: 20in x 15in (510mm x 380mm)
  • Condition: A+ Fine

Description:
This beautifully hand coloured original 1855 antique lithograph print of the Hodgsonia or Lard Fruit plant - that grows from northern India to SE Asia & Indonesia, is one of a series of illustrations made for J. F. Cathcart of the Bengal Civil Service by Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker for the 1855 publication of Illustrations of Himalayan plants.
This publication contained 24 coloured plates all superbly engraved and hand coloured. The plates were executed by W. H. Fitch, analysed by the famous botanist J. D. Hooker.

Hodgsonia or Lard Fruit - Although the flesh of Hodgsonia fruit is inedible and considered worthless, the large, oil-rich seeds are an important source of food. The kernels are occasionally eaten raw; they are slightly bitter, possibly due to an unidentified alkaloid or glucoside, but "perfectly safe" to eat. More commonly, the seeds are roasted, after which they taste like pork scraps or lard; many mountain peoples consider these roasted seeds a delicacy. In addition to eating the seeds alone, the Naga incorporate them into various types of curry.

Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker (1817 – 1911) was one of the greatest British botanists and explorers of the 19th century. Hooker was one of the founders of geographical botany, and Charles Darwin's closest friend. He was Director of the Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew, for twenty years, in succession to his father, William Jackson Hooker, and was awarded the highest honours of British science.
On 11 November 1847 Hooker left England for his three year long Himalayan expedition; he would be the first European to collect plants in the Himalaya.
By his travels and his publications, Hooker built up a high scientific reputation at home. In 1855 he was appointed Assistant-Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and in 1865 he succeeded his father as full Director, holding the post for twenty years. Under the directorship of father and son Hooker, the Royal Botanical gardens of Kew rose to world renown. At the age of thirty, Hooker was elected a fellow of the Royal Society, and in 1873 he was chosen its President (till 1877). He received three of its medals: the Royal Medal in 1854, the Copley in 1887 and the Darwin Medal in 1892. He continued to intersperse work at Kew with foreign exploration and collecting. His journeys to Palestine, Morocco and the United States all produced valuable information and specimens for Kew.
He started the series Flora Indica in 1855, together with Thomas Thompson. Their botanical observations and the publication of the Rhododendrons of Sikkim-Himalaya (1849–51), formed the basis of elaborate works on the rhododendrons of the Sikkim Himalaya and on the flora of India. His works were illustrated with lithographs by Walter Hood Fitch.

Walter Hood Fitch (1817 - 1892) was a botanist and botanical artist. He was born in Glasgow, Scotland.
Fitch was involved in fabric printing from the age of 17 and took to botanical art after being discovered by William Jackson Hooker, the editor of Curtis's Botanical Magazine. Hooker was a Professor of Botany at the University of Glasgow, and a competent botanical artist in his own right.
Fitch's important works are his illustrations for W. J. Hooker's A Century of Orchidaceous Plants (1851), and for James Bateman's A Monograph of Odontoglossum (1864-74). He also created around 500 plates for Hooker's Icones Plantarum (1836-76). Some of his most notable work was for George Bentham and W.J. Hooker's Handbook of the British Flora (1865). When Joseph Dalton Hooker returned from his travels in India, Fitch prepared lithographs from Hooker's sketches for his Rhododendrons of Sikkim Himalaya (1849-51) and, from the drawings of Indian artists, for his Illustrations of Himalayan Plants (1855).
A dispute over pay with Joseph Dalton Hooker ended Fitch's service to both the Botanical Magazine and Kew although he was much sought after and remained active as a botanical artist until 1888. Works during this period included Henry John Elwes's Monograph of the Genus Lilium (1877-80). (Ref: M&B; Tooley)


General Description:
Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy & stable
Paper color: - White
Age of map color: - Early
Colors used: - Red, pink, green, brown
General color appearance: - Authentic
Paper size: - 20in x 15in (510mm x 380mm)
Margins: - Min 1/2in (12mm)

Imperfections:
Margins: - Discolouration to the top left & right margins
Plate area: - None
Verso: - None

$975.00 USD
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