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Description: This original antique map a battle plan of the encampment at Prado del Rey located in the province of Cadiz, Andalucia Spain, during the The War of the Spanish Succession was published in 1745 by Nicholas Tindal in the continuation of Paul Rapin de Thoiras History of England.
This map is a Bird's Eye view of both armies encampments under the command of Count Staremberg and the enemy under the Duke of Vendosme.
The War of the Spanish Succession, also known as Marlborough's Wars (1702-13), fought in Europe and on the Mediterranean, were the last and the bloodiest of the Wars between England and France under Louis XIV, and the first in which Britain played a major military role in European military affairs.
Charles II, the Hapsburg king of Spain, was childless, and negotiations over his eventual successor began long before his death. The chief claimants were Philip, son of Louis XIV of France; Archduke Charles (later Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI), son of Emperor Leopold I; and Joseph Ferdinand, electoral prince of Bavaria. England and Holland, opposed to the extension of either French Bourbon or Austrian Hapsburg power into Spain, favoured Joseph Ferdinand. In 1698 all the powers agreed to the complicated First Partition Treaty. By its terms, Joseph Ferdinand was to get the crown; in return, Spanish territories were to go to Austria and France. Joseph Ferdinand died before Charles, however, and the treaty went into jeopardy. In 1700 the duke of Anjou, grandson of Louis, named by the dying Charles as his successor, ascended the throne as Philip V. England, Holland, Austria, and most of the German states then went to war against France. Bavaria sided with France, as did Portugal and Savoy until 1703, when they switched sides. In 1700 Louis had further antagonised the English by the prohibition of English imports and recognition of the claim to the English throne put forward by James, the "Old Pretender," who was the son of the deposed James II and the leader of the Jacobites. England's Grand Alliance with Holland, the Hapsburg Empire, Hanover, and Prussia, intended to prevent French dominance over all of Europe, was opposed by France, Spain, Bavaria, and Savoy. After the death of William III in 1702, Queen Anne, James's daughter, appointed John Churchill, the Earl of Marlborough, as commander of the English and Dutch armies. A brilliant soldier--brave, handsome, skilful--Marlborough was also opportunistic, crafty, deceptive, and tight-fisted. Military operations began in the Low Countries and became general in 1703.
During the War Marlborough waged ten successful campaigns, besieged over thirty towns, and never lost a battle or a skirmish. After his successes in the Netherlands, the Bavarians and the French threatened Vienna and the Austrians, and Marlborough, a master of tactics and strategy, marched 250 miles across Germany and confronted the French army at Blenheim in 1704, destroying two thirds of it and capturing Marshall Tallard, its commander. Thereafter, however, the war dragged on on different fronts--in the Netherlands, Italy, and Spain--but by 1710 the situation was largely stalemated, though the war as a whole had brought Britain into much greater prominence as a European power. The great allied commanders, the English Duke of Marlborough and the imperial general Prince Eugene of Savoy, won such major victories as Blenheim and Gibraltar (1704), Ramillies (1706), Oudenarde (1708), and Malplaquet (1709). The campaigns in Spain were indecisive, however, and in 1711 England quit the war. Charles VI had become emperor, and he represented as great a threat to the English as did the Bourbons.
Meanwhile, the cost of the war, a dominant theme in English politics and society during the reign of Queen Anne, had generated considerable political opposition at home, particularly amongst the Tory gentry who were taxed to pay for it: though a common soldier in the British Army earned only sixpence a day, it cost £1,000,000 a year to maintain the army in Europe, and total cost of the war for Britain was close to £9,000,000 per year. The conduct of the war became a political football between the Whigs and the Tories, with the queen in the middle. Marlborough's wife Sarah, long one of Anne's favourites, eventually fell out of favour, and after the Tories came back into power in 1710 Marlborough himself, accused of corruption, was stripped of his offices and went abroad.
Britain had withdrawn from the war for all practical purposes by 1712, and England, Holland, and France signed the Peace of Utrecht, negotiated by the Tory government, which was approved by parliament in 1713--though the Whigs (who represented the mercantile interests which had profited by the war, and who made larger profits by financing it, though in doing so they had created a National Debt which had to be financed by further taxation) regarded it as a betrayal of Britain's allies. By the terms of the treaty France agreed never to unite the crowns of France and Spain, while Britain acquired Hudson's Bay, Arcadia, and Newfoundland from the French, Gibraltar and Minorca from Spain, new trading privileges with Spain, and a monopoly of the slave trade with the Spanish Empire.
In 1713 England, Holland, and France signed the Peace of Utrecht. Charles continued the war until 1714. Although Philip remained on the Spanish throne, the principle of balance of power had been established in European dynastic affairs.
Marlborough returned to England after Anne's death in 1714 and was restored to some of his former influence under George I.
Paul Rapin de Thoiras was a Frenchman responsible for publishing ten elaborate volumes on the History of England Histoire D’ Angleterre published between 1724-27. In 1745 his work was translated and updated by Nicholas Tindal and called “Tindal’s Continuation of Mr. Rapin’s History of England”. Included with the English edition of Rapins work was an atlas containing 45 maps, battle plans and town plans of the Spanish War of Succession (1701-13) engraved by Richard William Seale and John Basire. Richard William Seale was an engraver and publisher from London responsible for publishing a number of fine and detailed maps of the continents between 1744-47. (Ref Tooley M&B)
General Description: Paper thickness and quality: - Heavy & stable Paper color: - off white Age of map color: - Colors used: - General color appearance: - Paper size: - 20in x 17in (510mm x 430mm) Plate size: - 19in x 15in (482mm x 380mm) Margins: - Min 1/2in (12mm) Imperfections: Margins: - None Plate area: - Folds as issued Verso: - None